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      Marcadores bioquímicos y moleculares asociados a la tolerancia al estrés hídrico en arroz Translated title: Biochemists and molecular markers associated with water stress tolerance in rice

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          Abstract

          En Venezuela, la sequía se ha convertido en un factor limitante para la producción arrocera nacional. Las variedades cultivadas tradicionalmente están adaptadas a una alta suplencia de agua. Esta investigación tuvo como propósito identificar marcadores bioquímicos (isoenzimas) y moleculares (microsatélites SSR) asociados a la tolerancia al estrés hídrico en arroz (Oryza sativa L.). El estudio de cartografía génica fue realizado en una población RC1F2 producto del cruce (LO2 x Fonaiap 2000) x LO2, empleando el programa MapDisto y el método de un marcador a la vez. Se identificaron 89 caracteres cuantitativos (QTL) putativos asociados a las características de la fase vegetativa, reproductivas y de rendimiento; usando cinco isoenzimas (PRX, G6PDH, ACP, 6PGD, SDH) y 40 (SSR) se estimaron los índices de susceptibilidad a la sequía (ISS). Seguidamente, se identifi có la asociación entre las isoenzimas, la tolerancia al estrés hídrico y los ISS en las familias de la población segregante, para variables relacionadas a la fase vegetativa, reproductiva y de maduración del grano de arroz. En los 2 grupos de ligamiento (cromosoma 3 y 9) se detectaron 4 QTL asociados a los ISS, 2 regiones asociadas con la floración al 50%, 1 para el desgrane (cromosoma 3) y 1 para la fertilidad (cromosoma 9) en RM107, RM442 y RM570. Esta información puede ser empleada como criterio en la selección asistida por medio de marcadores moleculares, en los futuros programas de mejoramiento genético del arroz, a fin de identificar familias y genotipos tolerantes a la condición de estrés hídrico.

          Translated abstract

          Drought in Venezuela has become a limiting factor for national rice production, as the cultivated varieties traditionally are adapted to high water supply. This study aimed to identify biochemical (isozymes) and molecular markers (microsatellites, SSR) associated with water stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Gene mapping study was conducted in a BC1F2 population product of the crossing (LO2 x Fonaiap 2000) x LO2 using the MapDisto program and the method of one marker at a time. Eighty-nine putative quantitative characters (QTLs) associated with vegetative, reproductive and yield traits were identifi ed. Using five isozymes (PRX, G6PDH, ACP, 6PGD and SDH) and 40 SSR drought susceptibility indexes (ISS) were estimated. Next, the association between isoenzymes, water stress tolerance and ISS in the families of the segregating population were identified for variables related to the vegetative, reproductive and maturation of the grain phase in rice. In the 2 linkage groups (chromosome 3 and 9) 4 QTL associated to ISS, 2 regions associated with 50% flowering, 1 for threshability (chromosome 3) and 1 for fertility (chromosome 9) were detected in RM107, RM442 and RM570. This information can be used as a criterion in molecular marker assisted selection in future rice breeding programs in order to identify families and genotypes tolerant to the water stress condition.

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          qDTY1.1, a major QTL for rice grain yield under reproductive-stage drought stress with a consistent effect in multiple elite genetic backgrounds

          Background Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses causing drastic reductions in yield in rainfed rice environments. The suitability of grain yield (GY) under drought as a selection criterion has been reported in the past few years. Most of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GY under drought in rice reported so far has been in the background of low-yielding susceptible varieties. Such QTLs have not shown a similar effect in multiple high- yielding drought-susceptible varieties, thus limiting their use in marker-assisted selection. Genetic control of GY under reproductive-stage drought stress (RS) in elite genetic backgrounds was studied in three F3:4 mapping populations derived from crosses of N22, a drought-tolerant aus cultivar, with Swarna, IR64, and MTU1010, three high-yielding popular mega-varieties, with the aim to identify QTLs for GY under RS that show a consistent effect in multiple elite genetic backgrounds. Three populations were phenotyped under RS in the dry seasons (DS) of 2009 and 2010 at IRRI. For genotyping, whole-genome scans for N22/MTU1010 and bulked segregant analysis for N22/Swarna and N22/IR64 were employed using SSR markers. Results A major QTL for GY under RS, qDTY1.1 , was identified on rice chromosome 1 flanked by RM11943 and RM431 in all three populations. In combined analysis over two years, qDTY 1.1 showed an additive effect of 29.3%, 24.3%, and 16.1% of mean yield in N22/Swarna, N22/IR64, and N22/MTU1010, respectively, under RS. qDTY 1.1 also showed a positive effect on GY in non-stress (NS) situations in N22/Swarna, N22/IR64 over both years, and N22/MTU1010 in DS2009. Conclusions This is the first reported QTL in rice with a major and consistent effect in multiple elite genetic backgrounds under both RS and NS situations. Consistency of the QTL effect across different genetic backgrounds makes it a suitable candidate for use in marker-assisted breeding.
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            Quantitative trait loci associated with drought tolerance at reproductive stage in rice.

            Drought is a major constraint to rice (Oryza sativa) yield and its stability in rainfed and poorly irrigated environments. Identifying genomic regions influencing the response of yield and its components to water deficits will aid in our understanding of the genetics of drought tolerance and development of more drought tolerant cultivars. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain yield and its components and other agronomic traits were identified using a subset of 154 doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between two rice cultivars, CT9993-510 to 1-M and IR62266-42 to 6-2. Drought stress treatments were managed by use of a line source sprinkler irrigation system, which provided a linearly decreasing level of irrigation coinciding with the sensitive reproductive growth stages. The research was conducted at the Ubon Rice Research Center, Ubon, Thailand. A total of 77 QTL were identified for grain yield and its components under varying levels of water stress. Out of the total of 77 QTL, the number of QTL per trait were: 7-grain yield (GY); 8-biological yield (BY); 6-harvest index (HI); 5-d to flowering after initiation of irrigation gradient (DFAIG); 10-total spikelet number (TSN); 7-percent spikelet sterility (PSS); 23-panicle number (PN); and 11-plant height (PH). The phenotypic variation explained by individual QTL ranged from 7.5% to 55.7%. Under well-watered conditions, we observed a high genetic association for BY, HI, DFAIG, PSS, TSN, PH, and GY. However, only BY and HI were found to be significantly associated with GY under drought treatments. QTL flanked by markers RG104 to RM231, EMP2_2 to RM127, and G2132 to RZ598 on chromosomes 3, 4, and 8 were associated with GY, HI, DFAIG, BY, PSS, and PN under drought treatments. The aggregate effects of these QTL on chromosomes 3, 4, and 8 resulted in higher grain yield. These QTL will be useful for rainfed rice improvement, and will also contribute to our understanding of the genetic control of GY under drought conditions at the sensitive reproductive stage. Close linkage or pleiotropy may be responsible for the coincidence of QTL detected in this experiment. Digenic interactions between QTL main effects for GY, BY, HI, and PSS were observed under irrigation treatments. Most (but not all) DH lines have the same response in measure of productivity when the intensity of water deficit was increased, but no QTL by irrigation treatment interaction was detected. The identification of genomic regions associated with GY and its components under drought stress will be useful for marker-based approaches to improve GY and its stability for farmers in drought-prone rice environments.
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              Microsatellite marker development, mapping and applications in rice genetics and breeding.

              Microsatellites are simple, tandemly repeated di- to tetra-nucleotide sequence motifs flanked by unique sequences. They are valuable as genetic markers because they are co-dominant, detect high levels of allelic diversity, and are easily and economically assayed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results from screening a rice genomic library suggest that there are an estimated 5700-10,000 microsatellites in rice, with the relative frequency of different repeats decreasing with increasing size of the motif. A map consisting of 120 microsatellite markers demonstrates that they are well distributed throughout the 12 chromosomes of rice. Five multiple copy primer sequences have been identified that could be mapped to independent chromosomal locations. The current level of genome coverage provided by these simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs) in rice is sufficient to be useful for genotype identification, gene and quantitative trail locus (QTL) analysis, screening of large insert libraries, and marker-assisted selection in breeding. Studies of allelic diversity have documented up to 25 alleles at a single locus in cultivated rice germplasm and provide evidence that amplification in wild relatives of Oryza sativa is generally reliable. The availability of increasing numbers of mapped SSLP markers can be expected to complement existing RFLP and AFLP maps, increasing the power and resolution of genome analysis in rice.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                at
                Agronomía Tropical
                Agronomía Trop.
                Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas INIA de Venezuela (Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela )
                0002-192X
                December 2014
                : 64
                : 3-4
                : 211-226
                Affiliations
                [05] orgnameINIA gelistorrealbaarrozgmail.com, gtorrealba@ 123456inia.gob.ve
                [03] Maracay Aragua orgnameUniversidad Central de Venezuela
                [02] orgnameCentro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
                [04] Portuguesa orgnameINIA
                [01] orgnameInstituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas
                Article
                S0002-192X2014000200008 S0002-192X(14)06400300008
                29a4f803-7583-4ded-aec3-7f8b67c4e920

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 15 February 2016
                : 07 May 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 50, Pages: 16
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Artículos Científicos

                drought,microsatellite,Isozymes,Oryza sativa L,sequía,producción,isoenzimas,microsatélites,production

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