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      Growth, Growth Hormone and Cognitive Functions

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          Abstract

          The interactions among short stature, growth hormone (GH) and cognitive functions have been extensively studied so far. However, although it seems well established that short stature is associated with cognitive problems, little effort has been made to point out the presence of specific psychological effects related to the different forms of short stature. In ‘short normal’ children, the presence of a scholastic underachievement seems to suggest that short stature ‘itself might predispose these patients to some of their psychosocial difficulties. The higher incidence of academic failure, in presence of a normal intellectual functioning, has been attributed to environmental and psychosocial factors, including over-protective parents and low self-esteem resulting from the impact of short stature. These problems appear to be common also to other forms of short stature (such as Turner’s syndrome) where, however, they are frequently associated with other specific deficits. The in vivo model which might allow, at least in part, better understanding of GH (per se)-dependent effects is represented by GH deficiency (GHD), in which, however, the specific role of GH on psychological functioning is frequently masked by the presence of associated hormonal deficiencies. Children with isolated GHD are reported to have specific educational deficits, in particular learning disability and attention-deficit disorders, which have been tentatively attributed to a compromised intellectual potential. The psychological effects of long-term GH treatment in children with GHD still remain controversial, with some retrospective studies describing a generally beneficial outcome. Since early experiences in school are closely related to success in adult life, the possible implications that GHD during childhood holds during adulthood have been recently considered. Although regional differences have been observed in subgroups of adults with GHD, it seems that these patients have normal cognitive functions and educational attainment, but are more likely to be unemployed (and unmanned) than members of the general population. In general, patients with GHD, who have been treated at centers where psychological counselling was an integral part of the treatment program, seem to be better adjusted in adult life. For these reasons, a multidisciplinary treatment approach could allow early detection of problems in academic achievement and psychosocial development in patients with short stature, being immediately able to provide the appropriate educational and counselling interventions.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          Horm Res Paediatr
          10.1159/issn.1663-2818
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-6280-5
          978-3-318-00020-7
          1663-2818
          1663-2826
          1996
          1996
          09 December 2008
          : 45
          : 1-2
          : 23-29
          Affiliations
          aLaboratorio Sperimentale di Ricerche Endocrinologiche, bLaboratorio Sperimentale di Ricerche Psicologiche, cLaboratorio Sperimentale di Ricerche Auxologiche, Centro Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, dIstituto di Scienze Endocrine, Università degli Studi di Milano, e eDipartimento di Psicologia, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italia
          Article
          184754 Horm Res 1996;45:23–29
          10.1159/000184754
          8742114
          © 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 7
          Categories
          Session 1: GH, Growth Factors and the Nervous System

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