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      An implementation of normal distribution based segmentation and entropy controlled features selection for skin lesion detection and classification

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          Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer with highest mortality rate. However, the annihilation in its early stage implies a high survival rate therefore, it demands early diagnosis. The accustomed diagnosis methods are costly and cumbersome due to the involvement of experienced experts as well as the requirements for the highly equipped environment. The recent advancements in computerized solutions for this diagnosis are highly promising with improved accuracy and efficiency.


          In this article, a method for the identification and classification of the lesion based on probabilistic distribution and best features selection is proposed. The probabilistic distribution such as normal distribution and uniform distribution are implemented for segmentation of lesion in the dermoscopic images. Then multi-level features are extracted and parallel strategy is performed for fusion. A novel entropy-based method with the combination of Bhattacharyya distance and variance are calculated for the selection of best features. Only selected features are classified using multi-class support vector machine, which is selected as a base classifier.


          The proposed method is validated on three publicly available datasets such as PH2, ISIC (i.e. ISIC MSK-2 and ISIC UDA), and Combined (ISBI 2016 and ISBI 2017), including multi-resolution RGB images and achieved accuracy of 97.5%, 97.75%, and 93.2%, respectively.


          The base classifier performs significantly better on proposed features fusion and selection method as compared to other methods in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Furthermore, the presented method achieved satisfactory segmentation results on selected datasets.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Textural Features for Image Classification

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            Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks

            Skin cancer, the most common human malignancy, is primarily diagnosed visually, beginning with an initial clinical screening and followed potentially by dermoscopic analysis, a biopsy and histopathological examination. Automated classification of skin lesions using images is a challenging task owing to the fine-grained variability in the appearance of skin lesions. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) show potential for general and highly variable tasks across many fine-grained object categories. Here we demonstrate classification of skin lesions using a single CNN, trained end-to-end from images directly, using only pixels and disease labels as inputs. We train a CNN using a dataset of 129,450 clinical images—two orders of magnitude larger than previous datasets—consisting of 2,032 different diseases. We test its performance against 21 board-certified dermatologists on biopsy-proven clinical images with two critical binary classification use cases: keratinocyte carcinomas versus benign seborrheic keratoses; and malignant melanomas versus benign nevi. The first case represents the identification of the most common cancers, the second represents the identification of the deadliest skin cancer. The CNN achieves performance on par with all tested experts across both tasks, demonstrating an artificial intelligence capable of classifying skin cancer with a level of competence comparable to dermatologists. Outfitted with deep neural networks, mobile devices can potentially extend the reach of dermatologists outside of the clinic. It is projected that 6.3 billion smartphone subscriptions will exist by the year 2021 (ref. 13) and can therefore potentially provide low-cost universal access to vital diagnostic care.
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              Automated Melanoma Recognition in Dermoscopy Images via Very Deep Residual Networks.

              Automated melanoma recognition in dermoscopy images is a very challenging task due to the low contrast of skin lesions, the huge intraclass variation of melanomas, the high degree of visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, and the existence of many artifacts in the image. In order to meet these challenges, we propose a novel method for melanoma recognition by leveraging very deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Compared with existing methods employing either low-level hand-crafted features or CNNs with shallower architectures, our substantially deeper networks (more than 50 layers) can acquire richer and more discriminative features for more accurate recognition. To take full advantage of very deep networks, we propose a set of schemes to ensure effective training and learning under limited training data. First, we apply the residual learning to cope with the degradation and overfitting problems when a network goes deeper. This technique can ensure that our networks benefit from the performance gains achieved by increasing network depth. Then, we construct a fully convolutional residual network (FCRN) for accurate skin lesion segmentation, and further enhance its capability by incorporating a multi-scale contextual information integration scheme. Finally, we seamlessly integrate the proposed FCRN (for segmentation) and other very deep residual networks (for classification) to form a two-stage framework. This framework enables the classification network to extract more representative and specific features based on segmented results instead of the whole dermoscopy images, further alleviating the insufficiency of training data. The proposed framework is extensively evaluated on ISBI 2016 Skin Lesion Analysis Towards Melanoma Detection Challenge dataset. Experimental results demonstrate the significant performance gains of the proposed framework, ranking the first in classification and the second in segmentation among 25 teams and 28 teams, respectively. This study corroborates that very deep CNNs with effective training mechanisms can be employed to solve complicated medical image analysis tasks, even with limited training data.

                Author and article information

                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BioMed Central (London )
                5 June 2018
                5 June 2018
                : 18
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9284 9490, GRID grid.418920.6, Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, ; Wah, Pakistan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9284 9490, GRID grid.418920.6, Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, ; Wah, Pakistan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9284 9490, GRID grid.418920.6, Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, ; Abbottabad, Pakistan
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1773 5396, GRID grid.56302.32, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, ; Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9284 9490, GRID grid.418920.6, Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, ; Attock, Pakistan
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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