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      PKM2 Regulates the Warburg Effect and Promotes HMGB1 Release in Sepsis

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          Abstract

          Increasing evidence suggests the important role of metabolic reprogramming in the regulation of the innate inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence to support a novel role for the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)-mediated Warburg effect, namely aerobic glycolysis, in the regulation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release. PKM2 interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and activates the HIF-1α-dependent transcription of enzymes necessary for aerobic glycolysis in macrophages. Knockdown of PKM2, HIF1α, and glycolysis-related genes uniformly decreases lactate production and HMGB1 release. Similarly, a potential PKM2 inhibitor, shikonin, reduces serum lactate and HMGB1 levels and protects mice from lethal endotoxemia and sepsis. Collectively, these findings shed light on a novel mechanism for metabolic control of inflammation by regulating HMGB1 release and highlight the importance of targeting aerobic glycolysis in the treatment of sepsis and other inflammatory diseases.

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          Most cited references 40

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          HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice.

          Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in pathogenesis. Here a potential late mediator of lethality is identified and characterized in a mouse model. High mobility group-1 (HMG-1) protein was found to be released by cultured macrophages more than 8 hours after stimulation with endotoxin, TNF, or IL-1. Mice showed increased serum levels of HMG-1 from 8 to 32 hours after endotoxin exposure. Delayed administration of antibodies to HMG-1 attenuated endotoxin lethality in mice, and administration of HMG-1 itself was lethal. Septic patients who succumbed to infection had increased serum HMG-1 levels, suggesting that this protein warrants investigation as a therapeutic target.
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            Pyruvate kinase M2 is a PHD3-stimulated coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1.

            The pyruvate kinase isoforms PKM1 and PKM2 are alternatively spliced products of the PKM2 gene. PKM2, but not PKM1, alters glucose metabolism in cancer cells and contributes to tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not explained by its known biochemical activity. We show that PKM2 gene transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). PKM2 interacts directly with the HIF-1α subunit and promotes transactivation of HIF-1 target genes by enhancing HIF-1 binding and p300 recruitment to hypoxia response elements, whereas PKM1 fails to regulate HIF-1 activity. Interaction of PKM2 with prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD3) enhances PKM2 binding to HIF-1α and PKM2 coactivator function. Mass spectrometry and anti-hydroxyproline antibody assays demonstrate PKM2 hydroxylation on proline-403/408. PHD3 knockdown inhibits PKM2 coactivator function, reduces glucose uptake and lactate production, and increases O(2) consumption in cancer cells. Thus, PKM2 participates in a positive feedback loop that promotes HIF-1 transactivation and reprograms glucose metabolism in cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              HIF-1alpha is essential for myeloid cell-mediated inflammation.

              Granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages of the myeloid lineage are the chief cellular agents of innate immunity. Here, we have examined the inflammatory response in mice with conditional knockouts of the hypoxia responsive transcription factor HIF-1alpha, its negative regulator VHL, and a known downstream target, VEGF. We find that activation of HIF-1alpha is essential for myeloid cell infiltration and activation in vivo through a mechanism independent of VEGF. Loss of VHL leads to a large increase in acute inflammatory responses. Our results show that HIF-1alpha is essential for the regulation of glycolytic capacity in myeloid cells: when HIF-1alpha is absent, the cellular ATP pool is drastically reduced. The metabolic defect results in profound impairment of myeloid cell aggregation, motility, invasiveness, and bacterial killing. This role for HIF-1alpha demonstrates its direct regulation of survival and function in the inflammatory microenvironment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                101528555
                37539
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature communications
                2041-1723
                25 June 2014
                14 July 2014
                2014
                14 January 2015
                : 5
                : 4436
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219, USA
                [3 ]Laboratory of Emergency Medicine, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Lizhi Cao ( lizhicao@ 123456gmail.com ) and Daolin Tang ( tangd2@ 123456upmc.edu )
                Article
                NIHMS606696
                10.1038/ncomms5436
                4104986
                25019241
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