Despite the tremendous progress made in the field of cancer therapy in recent years, certain solid tumors still cannot be successfully treated. Alongside classical treatments in the form of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, targeted treatments such as immunotherapy that cause fewer side effects emerge as new options in the clinics. However, these alternative treatments may not be useful for treating all types of cancers, especially for killing infiltrative and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Recent advances pursue the trapping of these cancer cells within a confined area to facilitate their removal for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. A good understanding of the mechanisms behind tumor cell migration may drive the design of traps that mimic natural tumor niches and guide the movement of the cancer cells. To bring this trapping idea into reality, strong efforts are being made to create structured materials that imitate myelinated fibers, blood vessels, or pre-metastatic niches and incorporate chemical cues such as chemoattractants or adhesive proteins. In this review, the different strategies used (or could be used) to trap tumor cells are described, and relevant examples of their performance are analyzed.