Since 1996, tsetse (Glossina spp.) control operations, using odor-baited traps, have been carried out in the Luke area of Gurage zone, southwestern Ethiopia. Glossina morsitans submorsitans Newstead was identified as the dominant species in the area, but the presence of Glossina fuscipes Newstead and Glossina pallidipes Austen also was recorded. Here, we refer to the combined number of these three species and report the work undertaken from October 2002 to October 2004 to render the control system more efficient by reducing the number of traps used and maintaining the previously reached levels of tsetse occurrence and trypanosomiasis prevalence. This was done by the design and implementation of an adaptive tsetse population management system. It consists first of an efficient community-participatory monitoring scheme that allowed us to reduce the number of traps used from 216 to 127 (107 monitoring traps and 20 control traps). Geostatistical methods, including kriging and mapping, furthermore allowed identification and monitoring of the spatiotemporal dynamics of patches with increased fly densities, referred to as hot spots. To respond to hot spots, the Luke community was advised and assisted in control trap deployment. Adaptive management was shown to be more efficient than the previously used mass trapping system. In that context, trap numbers could be reduced substantially, at the same time maintaining previously achieved levels of tsetse occurrences and disease prevalence.