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      Simultaneous Pre-Concentration and HPLC-MS/MS Quantification of Phycotoxins and Cyanotoxins in Inland and Coastal Waters

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this study was to set up a sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of phycotoxins and cyanotoxins—Emerging pollutants with different structures and harmful properties (hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and cytotoxicity)—In environmental waters. Due to the low concentrations detected in these samples, a pre-concentration step is required and here it was performed in a single step with a commercial cartridge (Strata™-X), achieving enrichment factors up to 200 and satisfactory recovery (R = 70–118%) in different aqueous matrices. After solid-phase extraction (SPE), toxins were separated and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography- Heated ElectroSpray Ionisation Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HESI-MS/MS) in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode. An analytical evaluation of the proposed method was done based on the analytical figures of merit, such as precision and trueness, linearity, selectivity, and sensitivity, and it turned out to be a robust tool for the quantification of ng L −1 levels, phycotoxins and cyanotoxins in both freshwater and saltwater samples.

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          Okadaic Acid: More than a Diarrheic Toxin

          Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most frequent and worldwide distributed marine toxins. It is easily accumulated by shellfish, mainly bivalve mollusks and fish, and, subsequently, can be consumed by humans causing alimentary intoxications. OA is the main representative diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin and its ingestion induces gastrointestinal symptoms, although it is not considered lethal. At the molecular level, OA is a specific inhibitor of several types of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and a tumor promoter in animal carcinogenesis experiments. In the last few decades, the potential toxic effects of OA, beyond its role as a DSP toxin, have been investigated in a number of studies. Alterations in DNA and cellular components, as well as effects on immune and nervous system, and even on embryonic development, have been increasingly reported. In this manuscript, results from all these studies are compiled and reviewed to clarify the role of this toxin not only as a DSP inductor but also as cause of alterations at the cellular and molecular levels, and to highlight the relevance of biomonitoring its effects on human health. Despite further investigations are required to elucidate OA mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, and harmful effects, there are enough evidences illustrating its toxicity, not related to DSP induction, and, consequently, supporting a revision of the current regulation on OA levels in food.
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            Domoic acid and human exposure risks: a review.

            Domoic acid is a potent neurotoxin that is naturally produced by several diatom species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. The toxin acts as a glutamate agonist and is excitotoxic in the vertebrate central nervous system and other glutamate receptor-rich organs. Human exposure to domoic acid occurs via the consumption of contaminated shellfish that have accumulated the toxin while filter feeding on toxigenic phytoplankton during blooms. The first reported human domoic acid poisoning event occurred in Canada in 1987 during which clinical signs of acute toxicity such as gastrointestinal distress, confusion, disorientation, memory loss, coma and death were observed. The illness was named amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and due to effective seafood monitoring programs there have been no documented ASP cases since 1987. However, domoic acid poisoning has a significant effect on marine wildlife and multiple poisoning events have occurred in marine birds and mammals over the last few decades. Currently, domoic acid producing diatom blooms are thought to be increasing in frequency world wide, posing an increasing threat to wildlife and human health. Of particular concern are the potential impacts of long-term low-level exposure in "at risk" human populations. The impacts of repetitive low-level domoic acid exposure are currently unknown. This review provides a basic description of the mechanism of action of domoic acid as well as a synthesis of information pertaining to domoic acid exposure routes, toxin susceptibility, and the importance of effective monitoring programs. The importance of investigating the potential human health impacts of long-term low-level domoic acid exposure in "at risk" human populations is also discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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              Domoic Acid and Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning - A Review

               EWEN TODD (1993)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                03 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 17
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy; francesca.merlo02@ 123456universitadipavia.it (F.M); federica.maraschi@ 123456unipv.it (F.M); davide.piparo01@ 123456universitadipavia.it (D.P.)
                [2 ]Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy; andrea.speltini@ 123456unipv.it
                Author notes
                Article
                ijerph-17-04782
                10.3390/ijerph17134782
                7369962
                32635172
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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