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      Innate lymphoid cells promote lung tissue homeostasis following acute influenza virus infection


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          Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), a recently identified heterogeneous cell population, are critical in orchestrating immunity and inflammation in the intestine but whether ILCs can influence immune responses or tissue homeostasis at other mucosal sites remains poorly characterized. Here we identify a population of lung-resident ILCs in mice and humans that expressed CD90, CD25, CD127 and T1-ST2. Strikingly, mouse ILCs accumulated in the lung following influenza virus infection and depletion of ILCs resulted in loss of airway epithelial integrity, decreased lung function and impaired airway remodeling. These defects could be restored by administration of the lung ILC product amphiregulin. Collectively, these results demonstrate a critical role for lung ILCs in restoring airway epithelial integrity and tissue homeostasis following influenza virus infection.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Epithelial-cell recognition of commensal bacteria and maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut.

           David Artis (2008)
          Mucosal surfaces such as the intestinal tract are continuously exposed to both potential pathogens and beneficial commensal microorganisms. This creates a requirement for a homeostatic balance between tolerance and immunity that represents a unique regulatory challenge to the mucosal immune system. Recent findings suggest that intestinal epithelial cells, although once considered a simple physical barrier, are a crucial cell lineage for maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. This Review discusses recent findings that identify a cardinal role for epithelial cells in sampling the intestinal microenvironment, discriminating pathogenic and commensal microorganisms and influencing the function of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes.
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            Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation.

            Pulmonary fibrosis and architectural remodeling of tissues can severely disrupt lung function, often with fatal consequences. The etiology of pulmonary fibrotic diseases is varied, with an array of triggers including allergens, chemicals, radiation and environmental particles. However, the cause of one of the most common pulmonary fibrotic conditions, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is still unclear. This review examines common mechanisms of pulmonary wound-healing responses following lung injury, and highlights the pathogenesis of some of the most widespread pulmonary fibrotic diseases. A three phase model of wound repair is reviewed that includes; (1) injury; (2) inflammation; and (3) repair. In most pulmonary fibrotic conditions dysregulation at one or more of these phases has been reported. Chronic inflammation can lead to an imbalance in the production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and disrupt cellular recruitment. These changes coupled with excessive pro-fibrotic IL-13 and/or TGFbeta1 production can turn a well-controlled healing response into a pathogenic fibrotic response. Endogenous regulatory mechanisms are discussed including novel areas of therapeutic intervention. Restoring homeostasis to these dysregulated healing responses, or simply neutralizing the key pro-fibrotic mediators may prevent or slow the progression of pulmonary fibrosis.
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              CD4(+) lymphoid tissue-inducer cells promote innate immunity in the gut.

              Fetal CD4(+) lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells play a critical role in the development of lymphoid tissues. Recent studies identified that LTi cells persist in adults and are related to a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cells that have been implicated in inflammatory responses. However, whether LTi cells contribute to protective immunity remains poorly defined. We demonstrate that after infection with Citrobacter rodentium, CD4(+) LTi cells were a dominant source of interleukin-22 (IL-22) early during infection. Infection-induced CD4(+) LTi cell responses were IL-23 dependent, and ablation of IL-23 impaired innate immunity. Further, depletion of CD4(+) LTi cells abrogated infection-induced expression of IL-22 and antimicrobial peptides, resulting in exacerbated host mortality. LTi cells were also found to be essential for host protective immunity in lymphocyte-replete hosts. Collectively these data demonstrate that adult CD4(+) LTi cells are a critical source of IL-22 and identify a previously unrecognized function for CD4(+) LTi cells in promoting innate immunity in the intestine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Nat Immunol
                Nat. Immunol.
                Nature Immunology
                23 February 2012
                November 2011
                1 May 2012
                : 12
                : 11
                : 1045-1054
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology and Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
                [2 ]Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
                [3 ]Department of Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
                [4 ]Department of Surgery and the Columbia Center for Translational Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
                [5 ]Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to D.A. ( dartis@ 123456mail.med.upenn.edu ) or E.J.W. ( wherry@ 123456mail.med.upenn.edu )

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                Funded by: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Extramural Activities : NIAID
                Award ID: U19 AI083022-02 || AI
                Funded by: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Extramural Activities : NIAID
                Award ID: U19 AI083022-01 || AI



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