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      In vivo Evidence of Arterial Dynamic Properties Alteration in Atherosclerotic Rabbit

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          Abstract

          Objectives: Atherosclerosis severely damages the arterial wall. The aim of this study was to assess in vivo, for the first time, arterial dynamic properties, reactivity, and stiffness in atherosclerotic (ATH) rabbits. Methods: The rabbits were fed with 0.3% cholesterol diet. Femoral artery (FA) or abdominal aorta (AA) diameter was recorded by echotracking, together with blood pressure. Arterial reactivity after local administration of agents and stiffness were measured as diameter or pulsatile diameter changes. Results: FA dilation induced by acetylcholine was reduced in the function of diet duration (9–65 weeks). With mid-term diet duration (35–45 weeks), the dilation to nitroprusside was greatly reduced; the constriction to norepinephrine was reduced but not that to serotonin, thromboxane agonist, or angiotensin II. After 17- and 28-week diet AA and FA stiffness were increased while distensibility was reduced. Arterial stiffness measured by regional pulse wave velocity was unaltered. We observed that after 28-week diet, FA exhibited a stiffened wall at the plaque level and higher distensibility at the upstream site. Discussion/Conclusion: Arterial reactivity and compliance were greatly modified by atherosclerosis, at various degrees dependent on diet duration. ATH rabbit is therefore a suitable model for in vivo investigations of treatments targeting dynamic properties of arterial wall.

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          Chronic Reduction of Nitric Oxide Level in Adult Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Induces Aortic Stiffness Similar to Old Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

          Introduction: Age and hypertension are two major determinants of arterial stiffness, as well as endothelial dysfunction. The present study was designed to test whether a chronic reduction of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) produces arterial stiffening close to that observed in old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and also to study the effect of an acute or a chronic decrease in blood pressure (BP) on aortic distensibility. Methods: BP, aortic stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and remodelling were measured in male adult (20-week-old) SHR, in adult SHR treated with a nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor L -NAME (SHR/ L -NAME) for 2 weeks, in adult SHR/ L -NAME cotreated with perindopril (1 mg/kg/day) and in old SHR (55-week-old). Age-matched WKY were used as a normotensive group. Results: Aortic endothelial dysfunction, remodelling and stiffening appeared in old SHR. Reduction of NO production in adult SHR caused similar alterations. Acute decreases in BP in SHR/ L -NAME did not improve isobaric aortic distensibility but a chronic reduction of BP prevented endothelial dysfunction, aortic remodelling and aortic wall stiffening. Conclusion: NO reduction in adult SHR induces aortic alterations similar to those observed during aging, which supports the major role of NO in the development of arterial stiffening. These aortic alterations can be prevented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment.
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            Is increased arterial stiffness a cause or consequence of atherosclerosis?

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              Functional and structural alterations of large arteries: methodological issues.

              Ultrasound assessment of vascular biomarkers has been implemented for screening, prevention and improvement of cardiovascular risk stratification beyond classical risk factors including smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Thus, the presence of vascular damage at the sub-clinical, asymptomatic stages can identify a "vulnerable" patient, and aid in implementing cardiovascular prevention strategies. Increased intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery is a well-known marker of early atherosclerosis, which significantly correlates with the development of coronary or cerebro-vascular disease. More recently, guidelines for cardiovascular prevention in hypertension also introduced other vascular parameters evaluating both mechanical and functional arterial properties of peripheral arteries. Increased arterial stiffness, which can be detected by ultrasound at the common carotid, has been shown to predict future cardiovascular events and it is already considered a subclinical target organ of hypertensive patients. Even earlier vascular abnormalities such as endothelial dysfunction in the peripheral arteries, detected as reduced flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery by ultrasound, have also been mentioned for their possible clinical use in the future. This manuscript reviews clinical evidence supporting the use of these different vascular markers for cardiovascular risk stratification, focusing on the need for an accurate, robust and reliable methodology for the assessment of vascular markers, which could improve their predictive value and increase their use in routine clinical practice.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2022
                July 2022
                19 April 2022
                : 59
                : 4
                : 239-250
                Affiliations
                Servier Research Institute, Suresnes, France
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8577-9185
                Article
                523898 J Vasc Res 2022;59:239–250
                10.1159/000523898
                35439760
                2a19953d-da4c-42b0-802c-076f55a24358
                © 2022 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 01 July 2021
                : 01 March 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Methods in Vascular Biology

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                In vivo,Rabbit,Arterial stiffness,Arterial distensibility,Atherosclerosis,Pulse wave velocity,Vascular reactivity

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