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      Influence of morphology and hemodynamic factors on rupture of multiple intracranial aneurysms: matched-pairs of ruptured-unruptured aneurysms located unilaterally on the anterior circulation

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          The authors evaluated the impact of morphological and hemodynamic factors on the rupture of matched-pairs of ruptured-unruptured intracranial aneurysms on one patient’s ipsilateral anterior circulation with 3D reconstruction model and computational fluid dynamic method simulation.


          20 patients with intracranial aneurysms pairs on the same-side of anterior circulation but with different rupture status were retrospectively collected. Each pair was divided into ruptured-unruptured group. Patient-specific models based on their 3D-DSA images were constructed and analyzed. The relative locations, morphologic and hemodynamic factors of these two groups were compared.


          There was no significant difference in the relative bleeding location. The morphological factors analysis found that the ruptured aneurysms more often had irregular shape and had significantly higher maximum height and aspect ratio. The hemodynamic factors analysis found lower minimum wall shear stress (WSSmin) and more low-wall shear stress-area (LSA) in the ruptured aneurysms than that of the unruptured ones. The ruptured aneurysms more often had WSSmin on the dome.


          Intracranial aneurysms pairs with different rupture status on unilateral side of anterior circulation may be a good disease model to investigate possible characteristics linked to rupture independent of patient characteristics. Irregular shape, larger size, higher aspect ratio, lower WSSmin and more LSA may indicate a higher risk for their rupture.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: natural history, clinical outcome, and risks of surgical and endovascular treatment.

          The management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is controversial. Investigators from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms aimed to assess the natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms and to measure the risk associated with their repair. Centres in the USA, Canada, and Europe enrolled patients for prospective assessment of unruptured aneurysms. Investigators recorded the natural history in patients who did not have surgery, and assessed morbidity and mortality associated with repair of unruptured aneurysms by either open surgery or endovascular procedures. 4060 patients were assessed-1692 did not have aneurysmal repair, 1917 had open surgery, and 451 had endovascular procedures. 5-year cumulative rupture rates for patients who did not have a history of subarachnoid haemorrhage with aneurysms located in internal carotid artery, anterior communicating or anterior cerebral artery, or middle cerebral artery were 0%, 2. 6%, 14 5%, and 40% for aneurysms less than 7 mm, 7-12 mm, 13-24 mm, and 25 mm or greater, respectively, compared with rates of 2 5%, 14 5%, 18 4%, and 50%, respectively, for the same size categories involving posterior circulation and posterior communicating artery aneurysms. These rates were often equalled or exceeded by the risks associated with surgical or endovascular repair of comparable lesions. Patients' age was a strong predictor of surgical outcome, and the size and location of an aneurysm predict both surgical and endovascular outcomes. Many factors are involved in management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Site, size, and group specific risks of the natural history should be compared with site, size, and age-specific risks of repair for each patient.
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            The natural course of unruptured cerebral aneurysms in a Japanese cohort.

            The natural history of unruptured cerebral aneurysms has not been clearly defined. From January 2001 through April 2004, we enrolled patients with newly identified, unruptured cerebral aneurysms in Japan. Information on the rupture of aneurysms, deaths, and the results of periodic follow-up examinations were recorded. We included 5720 patients 20 years of age or older (mean age, 62.5 years; 68% women) who had saccular aneurysms that were 3 mm or more in the largest dimension and who initially presented with no more than a slight disability. Of the 6697 aneurysms studied, 91% were discovered incidentally. Most aneurysms were in the middle cerebral arteries (36%) and the internal carotid arteries (34%). The mean (±SD) size of the aneurysms was 5.7±3.6 mm. During a follow-up period that included 11,660 aneurysm-years, ruptures were documented in 111 patients, with an annual rate of rupture of 0.95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.15). The risk of rupture increased with increasing size of the aneurysm. With aneurysms that were 3 to 4 mm in size as the reference, the hazard ratios for size categories were as follows: 5 to 6 mm, 1.13 (95% CI, 0.58 to 2.22); 7 to 9 mm, 3.35 (95% CI, 1.87 to 6.00); 10 to 24 mm, 9.09 (95% CI, 5.25 to 15.74); and 25 mm or larger, 76.26 (95% CI, 32.76 to 177.54). As compared with aneurysms in the middle cerebral arteries, those in the posterior and anterior communicating arteries were more likely to rupture (hazard ratio, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.12 to 3.21] and 2.02 [95% CI, 1.13 to 3.58], respectively). Aneurysms with a daughter sac (an irregular protrusion of the wall of the aneurysm) were also more likely to rupture (hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.48). This study showed that the natural course of unruptured cerebral aneurysms varies according to the size, location, and shape of the aneurysm. (Funded by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare in Japan and others; UCAS Japan UMIN-CTR number, C000000418.).
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              Magnitude and role of wall shear stress on cerebral aneurysm: computational fluid dynamic study of 20 middle cerebral artery aneurysms.

              Wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the main pathogenic factors in the development of saccular cerebral aneurysms. The magnitude and distribution of the WSS in and around human middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms were analyzed using the method of computed fluid dynamics (CFD). Twenty mathematical models of MCA vessels with aneurysms were created by 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography. CFD calculations were performed by using our original finite-element solver with the assumption of Newtonian fluid property for blood and the rigid wall property for the vessel and the aneurysm. The maximum WSS in the calculated region tended to occur near the neck of the aneurysm, not in its tip or bleb. The magnitude of the maximum WSS was 14.39+/-6.21 N/m2, which was 4-times higher than the average WSS in the vessel region (3.64+/-1.25 N/m2). The average WSS of the aneurysm region (1.64+/-1.16 N/m2) was significantly lower than that of the vessel region (P<0.05). The WSSs at the tip of ruptured aneurysms were markedly low. These results suggest that in contrast to the pathogenic effect of a high WSS in the initiating phase, a low WSS may facilitate the growing phase and may trigger the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm by causing degenerative changes in the aneurysm wall. The WSS of the aneurysm region may be of some help for the prediction of rupture.

                Author and article information

                BMC Neurol
                BMC Neurol
                BMC Neurology
                BioMed Central (London )
                31 December 2014
                31 December 2014
                : 14
                : 1
                [ ]Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                [ ]Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
                [ ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                © Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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