Pharmaceutical research has focused on the discovery and development of anticancer drugs. Clinical application of chemotherapy drugs is limited due to their severe side effects. In this regard, new naturally occurring anticancer drugs have gained increasing attention because of their potential effectiveness and safety. Fruits and vegetables are promising sources of anticancer remedy. Clausena (family Rutaceae) is a genus of flowering plants and includes several kinds of edible fruits and vegetables. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies show that carbazole alkaloids and coumarins from Clausena plants exhibit anticancer activity. This review summarizes research progresses made in the anticancer properties of plants belonging to Clausena; in particular, compounds with direct cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, and immune potentiation effects are discussed. This review reveals the potential use of plants from Clausena in preventing and treating cancer and provides a basis for development of relevant therapeutic agents.