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      The influence of silicon on barley growth, photosynthesis and ultra-structure under chromium stress.

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          Abstract

          Silicon (Si) is generally considered as a benefic element for higher plants, especially for those grown under abiotic stressed environments. Current study is carried out in a hydroponic experiment to analyze the effect of Si application on barley growth, photosynthesis and ultra-structure under chromium (Cr) stress. The treatments consisted of three Si (0, 1 and 2mM) and two Cr (0 and 100 μM) levels. The results showed that Si application at both levels enhanced plant growth relative to the control, and alleviated Cr toxicity, reflected by significant increase in growth and photosynthetic parameters, such as SPAD value, net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), cellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)), stomatal conductance (G(s)) and transpiration rate (T(r)), and chlorophyll fluorescence efficiency (Fv/Fm), with 2mM Si having greater effect than 1mM Si. Cr stress caused ultra-structural disorders in leaves, such as uneven swelling of chloroplast, increased amount of plastoglobuli, disintegrated and disappeared thylakoid membranes, increased size and number of starch granules in leaves, and root ultra-structural modification, including increased vacuolar size, presence of Cr metal in cell walls and vacuoles, disruption and disappearance of nucleus. Exogenous Si alleviated these ultra-structural disorders both in roots and leaves. Apparently, Si and Cr behaved antagonistically, indicating that Si could be a candidate for Cr detoxification in crops under Cr-contaminated soil.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
          Ecotoxicology and environmental safety
          Elsevier BV
          1090-2414
          0147-6513
          Mar 2013
          : 89
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China.
          Article
          S0147-6513(12)00435-6
          10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.11.015
          23260243
          2a3d73bc-c6ac-4609-b3a7-64fc3e24d65b

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