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      The causes and consequences of pituitary gigantism

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          Most cited references 165

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          Acromegaly: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline.

          The aim was to formulate clinical practice guidelines for acromegaly.
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            Guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of MEN type 1 and type 2.

            This is a consensus statement from an international group, mostly of clinical endocrinologists. MEN1 and MEN2 are hereditary cancer syndromes. The commonest tumors secrete PTH or gastrin in MEN1, and calcitonin or catecholamines in MEN2. Management strategies improved after the discoveries of their genes. MEN1 has no clear syndromic variants. Tumor monitoring in MEN1 carriers includes biochemical tests yearly and imaging tests less often. Neck surgery includes subtotal or total parathyroidectomy, parathyroid cryopreservation, and thymectomy. Proton pump inhibitors or somatostatin analogs are the main management for oversecretion of entero-pancreatic hormones, except insulin. The roles for surgery of most entero-pancreatic tumors present several controversies: exclusion of most operations on gastrinomas and indications for surgery on other tumors. Each MEN1 family probably has an inactivating MEN1 germline mutation. Testing for a germline MEN1 mutation gives useful information, but rarely mandates an intervention. The most distinctive MEN2 variants are MEN2A, MEN2B, and familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). They vary in aggressiveness of MTC and spectrum of disturbed organs. Mortality in MEN2 is greater from MTC than from pheochromocytoma. Thyroidectomy, during childhood if possible, is the goal in all MEN2 carriers to prevent or cure MTC. Each MEN2 index case probably has an activating germline RET mutation. RET testing has replaced calcitonin testing to diagnose the MEN2 carrier state. The specific RET codon mutation correlates with the MEN2 syndromic variant, the age of onset of MTC, and the aggressiveness of MTC; consequently, that mutation should guide major management decisions, such as whether and when to perform thyroidectomy.
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              The prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review.

              Pituitary adenomas display an array of hormonal and proliferative activity. Once primarily classified according to size (microadenomas, or = 1 cm), these tumors are now further classified according to immunohistochemistry and functional status. With these additional classifications in mind, the goals of the current study were to determine the prevalence of pituitary adenomas and to explore the clinical relevance of the findings. The authors conducted a metaanalysis of all existing English-language articles in MEDLINE. They used the search string (pituitary adenoma or pituitary tumor) and prevalence and selected relevant autopsy and imaging evaluation studies for inclusion. The authors found an overall estimated prevalence of pituitary adenomas of 16.7% (14.4% in autopsy studies and 22.5% in radiologic studies). Given the high frequency of pituitary adenomas and their potential for causing clinical pathologies, the findings of the current study suggest that early diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas should have far-reaching benefits.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Endocrinology
                Nat Rev Endocrinol
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                1759-5029
                1759-5037
                October 25 2018
                Article
                10.1038/s41574-018-0114-1
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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