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      Sources of isocyanic acid (HNCO) indoors: a focus on cigarette smoke

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          Abstract

          The sources and sinks of isocyanic acid (HNCO), a toxic gas, in indoor environments are largely uncharacterized.

          Abstract

          The sources and sinks of isocyanic acid (HNCO), a toxic gas, in indoor environments are largely uncharacterized. In particular, cigarette smoke has been identified as a significant source. In this study, controlled smoking of tobacco cigarettes was investigated in both an environmental chamber and a residence in Toronto, Canada using an acetate-CIMS. The HNCO emission ratio from side-stream cigarette smoke was determined to be 2.7 (±1.1) × 10 −3 ppb HNCO/ppb CO. Side-stream smoke from a single cigarette introduced a large pulse of HNCO to the indoor environment, increasing the HNCO mixing ratio by up to a factor of ten from background conditions of 0.15 ppb. Although there was no evidence for photochemical production of HNCO from cigarette smoke in the residence, it was observed in the environmental chamber via oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (1.1 × 10 7 molecules per cm 3), approximately doubling the HNCO mixing ratio after 30 minutes of oxidation. Oxidation of cigarette smoke by O 3 (15 ppb = 4.0 × 10 17 molecules per cm 3) and photo-reaction with indoor fluorescent lights did not produce HNCO. By studying the temporal profiles of both HNCO and CO after smoking, it is inferred that gas-to-surface partitioning of HNCO acts as an indoor loss pathway. Even in the absence of smoking, the indoor HNCO mixing ratios in the Toronto residence were elevated compared to concurrent outdoor measurements by approximately a factor of two.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Chemical composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke

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            Measurement of HONO, HNCO, and other inorganic acids by negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS): application to biomass burning emissions

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              Measurements of gas-phase inorganic and organic acids from biomass fires by negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ESPICZ
                Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts
                Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-7887
                2050-7895
                August 14 2019
                2019
                : 21
                : 8
                : 1334-1341
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry
                [2 ]University of Toronto
                [3 ]Toronto
                [4 ]Canada
                [5 ]Bucknell University
                [6 ]Lewisburg
                [7 ]USA
                [8 ]Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering
                Article
                10.1039/C9EM00107G
                © 2019
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C9EM00107G

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