Blog
About

16
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Collagen: a network for regenerative medicine

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Collagen, as the basic building block of native extracellular matrix, possesses an inherent biocompatibility which makes it ideal for regenerative medicine.

          Abstract

          The basic building block of the extra-cellular matrix in native tissue is collagen. As a structural protein, collagen has an inherent biocompatibility making it an ideal material for regenerative medicine. Cellular response, mediated by integrins, is dictated by the structure and chemistry of the collagen fibers. Fiber formation, via fibrillogenesis, can be controlled in vitro by several factors: pH, ionic strength, and collagen structure. After formation, fibers are stabilized via cross-linking. The final bioactivity of collagen scaffolds is a result of both processes. By considering each step of fabrication, scaffolds can be tailored for the specific needs of each tissue, improving their therapeutic potential.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 100

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Integrins

          Integrins are cell adhesion receptors that are evolutionary old and that play important roles during developmental and pathological processes. The integrin family is composed of 24 αβ heterodimeric members that mediate the attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) but that also take part in specialized cell-cell interactions. Only a subset of integrins (8 out of 24) recognizes the RGD sequence in the native ligands. In some ECM molecules, such as collagen and certain laminin isoforms, the RGD sequences are exposed upon denaturation or proteolytic cleavage, allowing cells to bind these ligands by using RGD-binding receptors. Proteolytic cleavage of ECM proteins might also generate fragments with novel biological activity such as endostatin, tumstatin, and endorepellin. Nine integrin chains contain an αI domain, including the collagen-binding integrins α1β1, α2β1, α10β1, and α11β1. The collagen-binding integrins recognize the triple-helical GFOGER sequence in the major collagens, but their ability to recognize these sequences in vivo is dependent on the fibrillar status and accessibility of the interactive domains in the fibrillar collagens. The current review summarizes some basic facts about the integrin family including a historical perspective, their structure, and their ligand-binding properties. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00441-009-0834-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Extracellular-matrix tethering regulates stem-cell fate.

            To investigate how substrate properties influence stem-cell fate, we cultured single human epidermal stem cells on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel surfaces, 0.1 kPa-2.3 MPa in stiffness, with a covalently attached collagen coating. Cell spreading and differentiation were unaffected by polydimethylsiloxane stiffness. However, cells on polyacrylamide of low elastic modulus (0.5 kPa) could not form stable focal adhesions and differentiated as a result of decreased activation of the extracellular-signal-related kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. The differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells was also unaffected by PDMS stiffness but regulated by the elastic modulus of PAAm. Dextran penetration measurements indicated that polyacrylamide substrates of low elastic modulus were more porous than stiff substrates, suggesting that the collagen anchoring points would be further apart. We then changed collagen crosslink concentration and used hydrogel-nanoparticle substrates to vary anchoring distance at constant substrate stiffness. Lower collagen anchoring density resulted in increased differentiation. We conclude that stem cells exert a mechanical force on collagen fibres and gauge the feedback to make cell-fate decisions.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Harnessing Traction-Mediated Manipulation of the Cell-Matrix Interface to Control Stem Cell Fate

              Stem cells sense and respond to the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix. However, both the extent to which extracellular matrix mechanics affect stem cell fate in 3D micro-environments and the underlying biophysical mechanisms are unclear. We demonstrate that the commitment of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations changes in response to the rigidity of 3D micro-environments, with osteogenesis occurring predominantly at 11–30 kPa. In contrast to previous 2D work, however, cell fate was not correlated with morphology. Instead, matrix stiffness regulated integrin binding as well as reorganization of adhesion ligands on the nanoscale, both of which were traction-dependent and correlated with osteogenic commitment of MSC populations. These findings suggest that cells interpret changes in the physical properties of adhesion substrates as changes in adhesion ligand presentation, and that cells themselves can be harnessed as tools to mechanically process materials into structures that feedback to manipulate their fate.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [a ] University of Michigan , 2350 Hayward Ave , Ann Arbor , MI 48109 , USA
                [b ] Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials , University of Cambridge , Cambridge , CB3 0FS , UK . Email: rec11@ 123456cam.ac.uk
                Journal
                J Mater Chem B Mater Biol Med
                J Mater Chem B Mater Biol Med
                Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
                Royal Society of Chemistry
                2050-750X
                2050-7518
                28 October 2016
                22 August 2016
                : 4
                : 40
                : 6484-6496
                c6tb00807k
                10.1039/c6tb00807k
                5123637
                This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Chemistry

                Comments

                Comment on this article