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      Assessing the Impact of a Global Health Fellowship on Pharmacists’ Leadership Skills and Consideration of Benefits to the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom

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          Abstract

          Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a global, public health concern that affects humans, animals and the environment. The UK Fleming Fund’s Commonwealth Partnerships for Antimicrobial Stewardship (CwPAMS) scheme aimed to support antimicrobial stewardship initiatives to tackle AMR through a health partnership model that utilises volunteers. There is evidence to indicate that NHS staff participating in international health projects develop leadership skills. Running in parallel with the CwPAMS scheme was the first Chief Pharmaceutical Officer’s Global Health (CPhOGH) Fellowship for pharmacists in the UK. In this manuscript, we evaluate the impact, if any, of participation in the CwPAMS scheme and the CPhOGH Fellowship, particularly in relation to leadership skills, and consider if there are demonstrable benefits for the NHS. The 16 CPhOGH Fellows were invited to complete anonymised baseline and post-Fellowship self-assessment. This considered the impact of the Fellowship on personal, professional and leadership development. Senior colleagues were invited to provide insights into how the Fellows had performed over the course of the Fellowship. All Fellows responded to both the pre- and post-Fellowship questionnaires with a return of 100% (16/16) response rate. There was a significant improvement in Fellows’ perception of their confidence, teaching abilities, understanding of behaviour change, management and communication skills. However, there was no change in the Fellows’ attitude to work. Feedback was received from 26 senior colleagues for 14 of the CPhOGH Fellows. Overall, senior colleagues considered CPhOGH Fellows to progress from proficient/established competencies to strong/excellent when using the national pharmacy Peer Assessment Tool and NHS Healthcare Leadership Model. The majority (88%) of senior colleagues would recommend the Fellowship to other pharmacists. The analysis of the data provided suggests that this CPhOGH Fellowship led to the upskilling of more confident, motivated pharmacist leaders with a passion for global health. This supports the NHS’s long-term plan “to strengthen and support good compassionate and diverse leadership at all levels”. Constructive feedback was received for improvements to the Fellowship. Job satisfaction and motivation improved, with seven CPhOGH Fellows reporting a change in job role and five receiving a promotion.

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          The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory.

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            Self-reported utilization of health care services: improving measurement and accuracy.

            Self-report is often used to estimate health care utilization. However, the accuracy of such data is of paramount concern. The authors conducted a systematic review of 42 studies that evaluated the accuracy of self-report utilization data, where utilization was defined as a visit to a clinical provider or entity. They also present a broad conceptual model that identifies major issues to consider when collecting, analyzing, and reporting such data. The results show that self-report data are of variable accuracy. Factors that affect accuracy include (1) sample population and cognitive abilities, (2) recall time frame, (3) type of utilization, (4) utilization frequency, (5) questionnaire design, (6) mode of data collection, and (7) memory aids and probes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Healthcare (Basel)
                Healthcare (Basel)
                healthcare
                Healthcare
                MDPI
                2227-9032
                15 July 2021
                July 2021
                : 9
                : 7
                : 890
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pharmacy, Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Aylesbury HP21 8AL, UK; claire.brandish@ 123456nhs.net (C.B.); beeyean.ng@ 123456nhs.net (B.Y.N.); kate.russellhobbs@ 123456nhs.net (K.R.-H.)
                [2 ]Pharmacy, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M13 9PL, UK; frances.garraghan@ 123456mft.nhs.uk
                [3 ]The Commonwealth Pharmacists Association (CPA), London E1W 1AW, UK; omotayo.olaoye@ 123456commonwealthpharmacy.org
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9886-6109
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9579-2028
                Article
                healthcare-09-00890
                10.3390/healthcare9070890
                8304379
                34356268
                2a432376-c045-409c-a08c-b9e3b30b24de
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 30 May 2021
                : 29 June 2021
                Categories
                Article

                commonwealth partnerships for antimicrobial stewardship (cwpams),national health service (nhs),chief pharmaceutical officer’s global health fellowship,cphogh fellows,cwpams,pharmacy,fellowship,health partnerships,antimicrobial resistance (amr),global health,leadership

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