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      Economic burden of chronic bronchitis in the United States: a retrospective case-control study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Chronic bronchitis (CB) is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed at a later stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We examined how this later diagnosis may impact health care costs and utilization during the 12 months prior to and 24 months post initial CB diagnosis.

          Methods

          This retrospective case-control analysis used claims data from a large US database from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2007. Patients with CB aged 40 years and older were propensity matched (N = 11,674) to patients without evidence of COPD or asthma by demographics, CB diagnosis quarter/year, and comorbidities. Group differences were assessed using Student’s t-test and Pearson chi-square test statistics.

          Results

          Six months prediagnosis, CB patients had higher frequencies of any hospitalization (9.6%, 6.7%; P < 0.05), emergency department/urgent care visits (13.3%, 6.7%; P < 0.05), and prescriptions (97.3%, 94.1%; P < 0.05). Six months postdiagnosis, CB patients had 5.6 times more hospitalizations ( P < 0.05) and 3.1 times more emergency department/urgent care visits ( P < 0.05) compared with controls. Mean total costs (US$) for CB patients 12 months prediagnosis were significantly higher than controls (months 12–7: $4212, $3826; P < 0.05; months 6–1: $5289, $4285; P < 0.05). CB patients had higher mean total costs ($8919; P < 0.05) 6 months postdiagnosis. Costs remained $2429 higher for CB patients 19–24 months postdiagnosis ( P < 0.05).

          Conclusion

          Health care costs and utilization among CB patients are increased both prior to diagnosis and during the 2 years postdiagnosis. This study suggests that not accurately diagnosing CB early has a substantial impact on health care costs, and that the economic burden for CB patients remains elevated even after adjustment for comorbidities associated with COPD.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Comorbidity measures for use with administrative data.

          This study attempts to develop a comprehensive set of comorbidity measures for use with large administrative inpatient datasets. The study involved clinical and empirical review of comorbidity measures, development of a framework that attempts to segregate comorbidities from other aspects of the patient's condition, development of a comorbidity algorithm, and testing on heterogeneous and homogeneous patient groups. Data were drawn from all adult, nonmaternal inpatients from 438 acute care hospitals in California in 1992 (n = 1,779,167). Outcome measures were those commonly available in administrative data: length of stay, hospital charges, and in-hospital death. A comprehensive set of 30 comorbidity measures was developed. The comorbidities were associated with substantial increases in length of stay, hospital charges, and mortality both for heterogeneous and homogeneous disease groups. Several comorbidities are described that are important predictors of outcomes, yet commonly are not measured. These include mental disorders, drug and alcohol abuse, obesity, coagulopathy, weight loss, and fluid and electrolyte disorders. The comorbidities had independent effects on outcomes and probably should not be simplified as an index because they affect outcomes differently among different patient groups. The present method addresses some of the limitations of previous measures. It is based on a comprehensive approach to identifying comorbidities and separates them from the primary reason for hospitalization, resulting in an expanded set of comorbidities that easily is applied without further refinement to administrative data for a wide range of diseases.
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            Comorbidities, patient knowledge, and disease management in a national sample of patients with COPD.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States but is often undertreated. COPD often overlaps with other conditions such as hypertension and osteoporosis, which are less morbid but may be treated more aggressively. We evaluated the prevalence of these comorbid conditions and compared testing, patient knowledge, and management in a national sample of patients with COPD. A survey was administered by telephone in 2006 to 1003 patients with COPD to evaluate the prevalence of comorbid conditions, diagnostic testing, knowledge, and management using standardized instruments. The completion rate was 87%. Among 1003 patients with COPD, 61% reported moderate or severe dyspnea and 41% reported a prior hospitalization for COPD. The most prevalent comorbid diagnoses were hypertension (55%), hypercholesterolemia (52%), depression (37%), cataracts (31%), and osteoporosis (28%). Only 10% of respondents knew their forced expiratory volume in 1 second (95% confidence interval [CI], 8-12) compared with 79% who knew their blood pressure (95% CI, 76-83). Seventy-two percent (95% CI, 69-75) reported taking any medication for COPD, usually a short-acting bronchodilator, whereas 87% (95% CI, 84-90) of patients with COPD and hypertension were taking an antihypertensive medication and 72% (95% CI, 68-75) of patients with COPD and hypercholesterolemia were taking a statin. Although most patients with COPD in this national sample were symptomatic and many had been hospitalized for COPD, COPD self-knowledge was low and COPD was undertreated compared with generally asymptomatic, less morbid conditions such as hypertension.
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              Misdiagnosis of COPD and asthma in primary care patients 40 years of age and over.

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often misdiagnosed as asthma, leading to inappropriate treatment and suboptimal patient outcomes. As part of a prospective study of patients with a history consistent with obstructive lung disease, we compared prior diagnostic labels with a study diagnosis based on spirometric results. We enrolled persons 40 years of age or older with prior diagnoses or medications consistent with obstructive lung disease. Patients were recruited via random mailing to primary care practices in Aberdeen, Scotland, and Denver, Colorado. Prior diagnoses of chronic bronchitis or emphysema (CBE) and asthma were reported by the subjects. Participants underwent pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry. A study diagnosis of COPD was defined using post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) < 0.70. Spirometric examination was complete in 597 patients, of whom 235 (39.4%) had a study diagnosis of COPD. Among subjects with a spirometry-based study diagnosis of COPD, 121 (51.5%) reported a prior diagnosis of asthma without concurrent CBE diagnosis, 89 (37.9%) reported a prior diagnosis of CBE, and 25 (10.6%) reported no prior diagnosis of obstructive lung disease. Despite the availability of consensus guideline diagnostic recommendations, diagnostic confusion between COPD and asthma appears common. Increased awareness of the differences between the two conditions is needed to promote optimal patient management and treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2011
                2011
                13 January 2011
                : 6
                : 73-81
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Division of Clinical and Outcomes Research, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC, USA
                [2 ] US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
                [3 ] Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Albuquerque, NM, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Christopher M Blanchette, Division of Clinical and Outcomes Research, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 115 West Avenue, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA, Tel +1 704 938 0530, Fax +1 704 625 7170, Email cblanchette@ 123456lrri.org
                Article
                copd-6-073
                10.2147/COPD.S15882
                3034282
                21311695
                © 2011 Blanchette et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, burden, economic

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