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      Hybrid chemical vapor deposition enables scalable and stable Cs-FA mixed cation perovskite solar modules with a designated area of 91.8 cm 2 approaching 10% efficiency

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          Large area and stable mixed-cation perovskite solar modules are fabricated via hybrid-CVD, which represents a step forward towards commercialization.


          The development of scalable deposition methods for stable perovskite layers is a prerequisite for the development and future commercialization of perovskite solar modules. However, there are two major challenges, i.e., scalability and stability. In sharp contrast to a previous report, here we develop a fully vapor based scalable hybrid chemical vapor deposition (HCVD) process for depositing Cs-formamidinium (FA) mixed cation perovskite films, which alleviates the problem encountered when using conventional solution coating of mainly methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3). Using our HCVD method, we fabricate perovskite films of Cs 0.1FA 0.9PbI 2.9Br 0.1 with enhanced thermal and phase stabilities, by the intimate incorporation of Cs into FA based perovskite films. In addition, the SnO 2 electron transport layer (ETL) (prepared by sputter deposition) is found to be damaged during the HCVD process. In combination with precise interface engineering of the SnO 2 ETL, we demonstrate relatively large area solar modules with efficiency approaching 10% and with a designated area of 91.8 cm 2 fabricated on 10 cm × 10 cm substrates (14 cells in series). On the basis of our preliminary operational stability tests on encapsulated perovskite solar modules, we extrapolated that the T 80 lifetime is approximately 500 h (under the light illumination of 1 sun and 25 °C).

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          Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03874j Click here for additional data file.

          Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. Adding cesium improves the compositions greatly.
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            Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide–based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells

            The formation of a dense and uniform thin layer on the substrates is crucial for the fabrication of high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) containing formamidinium with multiple cations and mixed halide anions. The concentration of defect states, which reduce a cell's performance by decreasing the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density, needs to be as low as possible. We show that the introduction of additional iodide ions into the organic cation solution, which are used to form the perovskite layers through an intramolecular exchanging process, decreases the concentration of deep-level defects. The defect-engineered thin perovskite layers enable the fabrication of PSCs with a certified power conversion efficiency of 22.1% in small cells and 19.7% in 1-square-centimeter cells.
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              Semiconducting tin and lead iodide perovskites with organic cations: phase transitions, high mobilities, and near-infrared photoluminescent properties.

              A broad organic-inorganic series of hybrid metal iodide perovskites with the general formulation AMI3, where A is the methylammonium (CH3NH3(+)) or formamidinium (HC(NH2)2(+)) cation and M is Sn (1 and 2) or Pb (3 and 4) are reported. The compounds have been prepared through a variety of synthetic approaches, and the nature of the resulting materials is discussed in terms of their thermal stability and optical and electronic properties. We find that the chemical and physical properties of these materials strongly depend on the preparation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 1-4 classifies the compounds in the perovskite structural family. Structural phase transitions were observed and investigated by temperature-dependent single crystal X-ray diffraction in the 100-400 K range. The charge transport properties of the materials are discussed in conjunction with diffuse reflectance studies in the mid-IR region that display characteristic absorption features. Temperature-dependent studies show a strong dependence of the resistivity as a function of the crystal structure. Optical absorption measurements indicate that 1-4 behave as direct-gap semiconductors with energy band gaps distributed in the range of 1.25-1.75 eV. The compounds exhibit an intense near-IR photoluminescence (PL) emission in the 700-1000 nm range (1.1-1.7 eV) at room temperature. We show that solid solutions between the Sn and Pb compounds are readily accessible throughout the composition range. The optical properties such as energy band gap, emission intensity, and wavelength can be readily controlled as we show for the isostructural series of solid solutions CH3NH3Sn(1-x)Pb(x)I3 (5). The charge transport type in these materials was characterized by Seebeck coefficient and Hall-effect measurements. The compounds behave as p- or n-type semiconductors depending on the preparation method. The samples with the lowest carrier concentration are prepared from solution and are n-type; p-type samples can be obtained through solid state reactions exposed in air in a controllable manner. In the case of Sn compounds, there is a facile tendency toward oxidation which causes the materials to be doped with Sn(4+) and thus behave as p-type semiconductors displaying metal-like conductivity. The compounds appear to possess very high estimated electron and hole mobilities that exceed 2000 cm(2)/(V s) and 300 cm(2)/(V s), respectively, as shown in the case of CH3NH3SnI3 (1). We also compare the properties of the title hybrid materials with those of the "all-inorganic" CsSnI3 and CsPbI3 prepared using identical synthetic methods.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Materials Chemistry A
                J. Mater. Chem. A
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                March 19 2019
                : 7
                : 12
                : 6920-6929
                [1 ]Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit (EMSSU)
                [2 ]Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST)
                [3 ]Kunigami-gun
                [4 ]Japan
                [5 ]Research Center for Photovoltaics (RCPV)
                [6 ]National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
                [7 ]Tsukuba
                © 2019


                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C9TA00239A


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