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Targeting nanomedicines in the treatment of Crohn’s disease: focus on certolizumab pegol (CDP870)

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International Journal of Nanomedicine

Dove Medical Press

certolizumab pegol, Crohn’s disease, Fab, TNF

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      Abstract

      A variety of targets for therapeutic intervention are based upon advances in understanding of the immunopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease. Crohn’s disease is initiated by an innate immune response, which eventuates in a T-cell driven process, characterized by a T-helper cell 1 type cytokine profile. Several new treatments now focus on suppressing T-cell differentiation or T-cell inflammation. Since inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a state of dysregulated inflammation, drugs that augment the anti-inflammatory response have the potential to downregulate inflammation and thereby hopefully modify the disease. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a major target of research and clinical investigation. TNF has proinflammatory effects in the intestinal mucosa and is a pivotal cytokine in the inflammatory cascade. Certolizumab pegol (CDP870) is a PEGylated, Fab' fragment of a humanized anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody. PEGylation increases the half-life, reduces the requirement for frequent dosing, and possibly reduces antigenicity as well. Certolizumab has been shown in Phase III trials to achieve and maintain clinical response and remission in Crohn’s disease patients. It improves the quality of life. Certolizumab pegol will be indicated for moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease, but it is not yet licensed in Europe or the US. It is not possible to construct an algorithm for treatment, but when compared with infliximab the two principal advantages are likely to be lower immunogenicity (as shown by anti-drug antibodies, absence of infusion reactions, and low rate of antinuclear antibodies), and a subcutaneous route of administration. These two factors may be sufficient to promote it up the pecking order of anti-TNF agents.

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      Most cited references 52

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      Although the incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are beginning to stabilize in high-incidence areas such as northern Europe and North America, they continue to rise in low-incidence areas such as southern Europe, Asia, and much of the developing world. As many as 1.4 million persons in the United States and 2.2 million persons in Europe suffer from these diseases. Previously noted racial and ethnic differences seem to be narrowing. Differences in incidence across age, time, and geographic region suggest that environmental factors significantly modify the expression of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The strongest environmental factors identified are cigarette smoking and appendectomy. Whether other factors such as diet, oral contraceptives, perinatal/childhood infections, or atypical mycobacterial infections play a role in expression of inflammatory bowel disease remains unclear. Additional epidemiologic studies to define better the burden of illness, explore the mechanism of association with environmental factors, and identify new risk factors are needed.
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        Maintenance infliximab for Crohn's disease: the ACCENT I randomised trial.

        We did a randomised controlled trial to assess the benefit of maintenance infliximab therapy in patients with active Crohn's disease who respond to a single infusion of infliximab. 573 patients with a score of at least 220 on the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) received a 5 mg/kg intravenous infusion of infliximab at week 0. After assessment of response at week 2, patients were randomly assigned repeat infusions of placebo at weeks 2 and 6 and then every 8 weeks thereafter until week 46 (group I), repeat infusions of 5 mg/kg infliximab at the same timepoints (group II), or 5 mg/kg infliximab at weeks 2 and 6 followed by 10 mg/kg (group III). The prespecified co-primary endpoints were the proportion of patients who responded at week 2 and were in remission (CDAI 54) and more than 54 weeks (21 to >54) for groups II and III, respectively, compared with 19 weeks (10-45) for group I (p=0.002 and p=0.0002, respectively). Infliximab safety was consistent with that seen in other trials of infliximab in Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. In particular, the incidence of serious infections was similar across treatment groups. Patients with Crohn's disease who respond to an initial dose of infliximab are more likely to be in remission at weeks 30 and 54, to discontinue corticosteroids, and to maintain their response for a longer period of time, if infliximab treatment is maintained every 8 weeks.
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          Anti-TNF antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of serious infections and malignancies: systematic review and meta-analysis of rare harmful effects in randomized controlled trials.

          Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in host defense and tumor growth control. Therefore, anti-TNF antibody therapies may increase the risk of serious infections and malignancies. To assess the extent to which anti-TNF antibody therapies may increase the risk of serious infections and malignancies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by performing a meta-analysis to derive estimates of sparse harmful events occurring in randomized trials of anti-TNF therapy. A systematic literature search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and electronic abstract databases of the annual scientific meetings of both the European League Against Rheumatism and the American College of Rheumatology was conducted through December 2005. This search was complemented with interviews of the manufacturers of the 2 licensed anti-TNF antibodies. We included randomized, placebo-controlled trials of the 2 licensed anti-TNF antibodies (infliximab and adalimumab) used for 12 weeks or more in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nine trials met our inclusion criteria, including 3493 patients who received anti-TNF antibody treatment and 1512 patients who received placebo. Data on study characteristics to assess study quality and intention-to-treat data for serious infections and malignancies were abstracted. Published information from the trials was supplemented by direct contact between principal investigators and industry sponsors. We calculated a pooled odds ratio (Mantel-Haenszel methods with a continuity correction designed for sparse data) for malignancies and serious infections (infection that requires antimicrobial therapy and/or hospitalization) in anti-TNF-treated patients vs placebo patients. We estimated effects for high and low doses separately. The pooled odds ratio for malignancy was 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-9.1) and for serious infection was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1). Malignancies were significantly more common in patients treated with higher doses compared with patients who received lower doses of anti-TNF antibodies. For patients treated with anti-TNF antibodies in the included trials, the number needed to harm was 154 (95% CI, 91-500) for 1 additional malignancy within a treatment period of 6 to 12 months. For serious infections, the number needed to harm was 59 (95% CI, 39-125) within a treatment period of 3 to 12 months. There is evidence of an increased risk of serious infections and a dose-dependent increased risk of malignancies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-TNF antibody therapy. The formal meta-analysis with pooled sparse adverse events data from randomized controlled trials serves as a tool to assess harmful drug effects.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Gastroenterology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
            Author notes
            Correspondence: SPL Travis, Gastroenterology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK, Tel +44 1865 851072, Fax +44 1865 220320, Email simon.travis@ 123456ndm.ox.ac.uk
            Journal
            Int J Nanomedicine
            International Journal of Nanomedicine
            International Journal of Nanomedicine
            Dove Medical Press
            1176-9114
            1178-2013
            March 2007
            March 2007
            : 2
            : 1
            : 39-47
            2673818
            ijn-2-39
            17722511
            © 2007 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
            Categories
            Review

            Molecular medicine

            crohn’s disease, certolizumab pegol, fab, tnf

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