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      Analysis of autonomic modulation after an acute session of resistance exercise at different intensities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Physical exercises are employed as part of the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however information regarding cardiac autonomic modulation after an acute session of resistance exercise (RE) is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation, via heart rate variability after an acute session of RE applied at different intensities in COPD patients.

          Patients and methods

          Twelve COPD patients underwent an acute session of RE with an intensity of 60% and another of 90% of the one repetition maximum test. For analysis of autonomic modulation, heart rate was recorded beat-by-beat for 20 minutes at rest and after the training session. Heart rate variability indexes were obtained in the time and frequency domains for the assessment of autonomic modulation.

          Results

          Regardless of exercise intensity, RE acute sessions influenced the autonomic modulation when the recovery period was compared with the baseline. An increase in standard deviation of normal to normal RR intervals was observed throughout recovery time after the RE, as compared to baseline in both protocols: 60% and 90% of the one repetition maximum test. The spectral component of low frequency index (ms) was higher throughout recovery when compared to baseline in both protocols. The same was also observed in the spectral component of high frequency index (ms) for the protocols of 60% and 90%.

          Conclusion

          RE sessions impact on the autonomic modulation of COPD patients by promoting differences in the recovery period compared to baseline, regardless of the intensity of the exercise performed.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Muscle weakness is related to utilization of health care resources in COPD patients.

          The factors determining utilization of health care resources in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. In order to obtain insight into these factors, we studied the utilization of health care resources in 57 stable COPD patients with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 36 +/- 9% predicted. Patients were divided into two groups: admitted at least twice in the last year (high medical consumption; n = 23) or not admitted in the last year (low medical consumption; n = 34). Other variables related to utilization of health care resources studied were; the number of hospital days; the number of out-patient visits to a pulmonary department in the last year; and the average daily dose (ADD) of corticosteroids taken in the last 6 months. The actual cost of utilization of health care resources, however, was not studied. In addition, pulmonary function, serum electrolytes, blood gas values, 6 min walking distance, respiratory and peripheral muscle force, and appraisal of self-care agency (ASA score) were studied. Pulmonary function, serum electrolytes, blood gas values, ASA score and walking distance were not different between the two groups (e.g. FEV1 36 +/- 8 vs 36 +/- 10% pred). Respiratory muscle forces tended to be lower in the high medical consumption group, this tendency almost reaching statistical significance for maximal expiratory pressure (PE,max) (p = 0.08). Peripheral muscle force, however, was clearly reduced in the high medical consumption group (quadriceps force 63 +/- 20 vs 82 +/- 26% pred; p < 0.05). The number of admissions, the number of hospital days, the number of out-patient visits, and ADD were interrelated and also related to ventilatory and peripheral muscle force (r -0.18 to -0.38). This relationship was statistically significant for PE,max, whilst a similar tendency was present for maximal inspiratory pressure (PI,max). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, only quadriceps force was a significant determinant of utilization of health care services. We conclude that utilization of health care services in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is related to ventilatory and peripheral muscle force. Whether or not reduced muscle force is simply an expression of disease severity remains to be determined.
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            Neurohumoral activation as a link to systemic manifestations of chronic lung disease.

            COPD is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Treatment of COPD improves lung function but is unlikely to slow the steady downhill course of the disease or reduce mortality. In COPD, numerous abnormalities can be found outside the lung. These include systemic inflammation, cachexia, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Thus, COPD has been called a systemic disease. Convincing data demonstrate that COPD causes neurohumoral activation. By precedents derived from chronic heart failure and other diseases characterized by neurohumoral activation, we propose that the negative consequences of neurohumoral activation, namely inflammation, cachexia, effects on ventilation, and skeletal muscle dysfunction, give rise to a self-perpetuating cycle that contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD, and which may involve respiratory muscle dysfunction as well as systemic inflammation. This concept may further help explain the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in COPD patients. Currently, little is known about the effect of treatments directed at neurohumoral activation and COPD. As this aspect of COPD becomes better understood, new insights may direct novel therapeutic approaches.
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              American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation/Heart Rhythm Society scientific statement on noninvasive risk stratification techniques for identifying patients at risk for sudden cardiac death: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology Committee on Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2015
                29 January 2015
                : 10
                : 223-229
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiotherapy, Paulista State University (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Department of Physiotherapy, Paulista State University, Rua Roberto Simonsen 305, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, CEP 19060-900, Brazil, Tel +55 18 3221 4818, Fax +55 18 3221 8212, Email ercy@ 123456fct.unesp.br
                Article
                copd-10-223
                10.2147/COPD.S64345
                4321648
                © 2015 Nicolino et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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