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      Characteristics of Modic changes in cervical kyphosis and their association with axial neck pain

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          The purpose of this study was to evaluate characteristics of Modic changes in cervical kyphosis (CK) and their association with axial neck pain.


          Study participants included 286 asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with CK (mean age = 54.2 ± 12.2 years) who were consecutively enrolled from March 2009 to October 2015. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed at a university outpatient department. CK was classified as global type, reverse sigmoid type, or sigmoid type.


          There were 138 participants with global type CK, 103 with reverse sigmoid type CK, and 45 with sigmoid type CK. Of the 286 participants, 102 had Modic changes (Modic-1 in 38 segments and Modic-2 in 75 segments). Spinal cord compression grade and disc degeneration occurred more frequently in the group with axial neck pain compared to the group without pain. Angular motion was decreased in those with axial neck pain (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 7.8°±4.6°) compared to those who were asymptomatic (mean ± SD 8.9°±5.1°; P<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Modic changes were associated with axial neck pain (odds ratio =5.356; 95% confidence interval =1.314–12.800; P<0.001).


          Modic changes occur most commonly in association with CK global type and less commonly with reverse sigmoid type and sigmoid type. Modic changes are associated with axial neck pain in patients with CK.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Imaging of degenerative disk disease.

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            A population-based study of juvenile disc degeneration and its association with overweight and obesity, low back pain, and diminished functional status.

            Little is known regarding juvenile disc degeneration in individuals with normal spinal alignment. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence, determinants, and clinical relevance associated with juvenile disc degeneration of the lumbar spine in individuals without spinal deformities. A cross-sectional assessment of disc degeneration in juveniles was performed as part of a population-based study of 1989 Southern Chinese volunteers. Adolescents and young adults from thirteen to twenty years of age were defined as "juveniles." Juvenile subjects with no spinal deformity (n = 83) were stratified into two groups, those with and those without juvenile disc degeneration. Sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) were evaluated for the presence and extent of disc degeneration as well as other spinal findings. Demographics were assessed and clinical profiles were collected with use of standardized questionnaires. Juvenile disc degeneration was present in 35% (twenty-nine) of the juveniles without spinal deformity. Disc bulging or extrusion (p < 0.001), high-intensity zones on MRI (p = 0.040), and greater weight (p < 0.001) and height (p = 0.002) were significantly more prevalent in subjects with juvenile disc degeneration. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression modeling demonstrated that Asian-modified body-mass index (BMI) values in the overweight or obese range had a significant association with juvenile disc degeneration (odds ratio = 14.19; 95% confidence interval = 1.44 to 140.40; p = 0.023). Overweight and obese individuals had greater severity of disc degeneration than underweight and normal-weight individuals (p = 0.036). Furthermore, individuals with juvenile disc degeneration had an increased prevalence of low back pain and/or sciatica (p = 0.002), greater low back pain intensity (p < 0.001), diminished social functioning (p = 0.049), and greater physical disability (p < 0.05) than individuals without disc degeneration. The p value of <0.05 for physical disability represents both the physical function (p = 0.006) and the physical component (p = 0.032) of the SF-36. This study demonstrated that the presence of juvenile disc degeneration was strongly associated with overweight and obesity, low back pain, increased low back pain intensity, and diminished physical and social functioning. Furthermore, an elevated BMI was significantly associated with increased severity of disc degeneration. This study has public health implications regarding overweight and obesity and the development of lumbar disc disease. © 2011 by the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
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              Distinguishing case series from cohort studies.

              Case series are a commonly reported study design, but the label "case series" is used inconsistently and sometimes incorrectly. Mislabeling impairs the appropriate indexing and sorting of evidence. This article tries to clarify the concept of case series and proposes a way to distinguish them from cohort studies. In a cohort study, patients are sampled on the basis of exposure and are followed over time, and the occurrence of outcomes is assessed. A cohort study may include a comparison group, although this is not a necessary feature. A case series may be a study that samples patients with both a specific outcome and a specific exposure, or one that samples patients with a specific outcome and includes patients regardless of whether they have specific exposures. Whereas a cohort study, in principle, enables the calculation of an absolute risk or a rate for the outcome, such a calculation is not possible in a case series.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                14 July 2017
                : 10
                : 1657-1661
                [1 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]The Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Biomechanics of Hebei Province, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jia Li, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 139 Ziqiang Road, Shijiazhuang, 050051, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 311 8860 2016, Fax +86 311 8860 2015, Email ljlyqbwin2010@ 123456yeah.net
                © 2017 An et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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