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      Sex Differences in the Prevalence, Progression, and Improvement of Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: We examined sex differences in prevalence, progression, and improvement in early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: We analyzed data from 533 participants who took 4 consecutive annual CKD detection tests. Results: Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and hemoglobin (Hb) at baseline in men with and without CKD and in women with and without CKD were 8.3±6.1, 149.2±310.4, 10.2±5.8, and 96.7±246.8 mg/g Cr; 83.4±14.7, 63.8±18.8, 79.9±13.0, and 69.4±20.0 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>; and 14.8±1.2, 14.3±1.4, 13.0±1.0, and 13.0±1.2 mg/dL, respectively. ACR levels decreased significantly over time in men and women with CKD and they increased significantly over time in men and women without CKD. eGFR levels in men and women with CKD did not significantly change over time, but they decreased significantly over time in men and women without CKD. CKD prevalence and progression rate were not significantly different between sexes. Among the CKD participants, significantly more women had a “cured” status at 3 years (39.1% vs. 19.4%, P<0.01). Most whose eGFR increased to >60 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> at 3 years had values just below those at baseline. Regression analysis showed that change in eGFR correlated significantly with ACR in men with CKD (change in eGFR = -1.707+0.022×ACR, P<0.001, r<sup>2</sup>=0.201) and with Hb and ACR in women with CKD (change in eGFR = 48.870-3.803×Hb + 0.018×ACR, P<0.05, r<sup>2</sup>=0.134). Conclusions: These results suggest that the slight decrease of Hb within a normal range and mild anemia can be managed in women with early-stage CKD. The key baseline for eGFR is 60 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>.

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          Most cited references 4

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          An overview of regular dialysis treatment in Japan (as of 31 December 2010).

          A nationwide statistical survey of 4226 dialysis facilities was conducted at the end of 2010, and 4166 facilities (98.6%) responded. The number of new patients introduced into dialysis was 37,512 in 2010. This number has decreased for two consecutive years since it peaked in 2008. The number of patients who died in 2010 was 28,882, which has been increasing every year. The number of patients undergoing dialysis at the end of 2010 was 298,252, which is an increase of 7591 (2.6%) compared with that at the end of 2009. The number of dialysis patients per million at the end of 2010 was 2329.1. The crude death rate of dialysis patients in 2010 was 9.8%, and has been gradually increasing. The mean age of the new patients introduced into dialysis was 67.8 years and the mean age of the entire dialysis patient population was 66.2 years. Regarding the primary disease of the new patients introduced into dialysis, the percentage of patients with diabetic nephropathy was 43.6%, which is a slight decrease from that in the previous year (44.5%). Patients with diabetic nephropathy as the primary disease accounted for 35.9% of the entire dialysis patient population, which approaches the percentage of patients with chronic glomerulonephritis as the primary disease (36.2%). The percentage of patients who had undergone carpal tunnel release surgery (CTx) was 4.3%, which is a slight decrease from that at the end of 1999 (5.5%). The decrease in the percentage of patients who had undergone CTx was significant among the patients with dialysis durations of 20-24 years (1999, 48.0%; 2010, 23.2%). A total weekly Kt/V attributable to peritoneal dialysis and their residual functional kidney was 1.7 or higher for 59.4% of patients who underwent peritoneal dialysis. © 2012 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2012 International Society for Apheresis.
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            The rate of progression of renal disease may not be slower in women compared with men: a patient-level meta-analysis.

            Some studies suggest that progression of renal disease is slower in women than in men. However, other factors that are also associated with progression of renal disease have not always been taken into account. Therefore, we undertook this analysis to explore the independent association of renal disease progression with gender. We analysed a pooled database of patients with non-diabetic renal disease enrolled in 11 randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) for slowing renal disease progression. The primary end point was the combined outcome of doubling of baseline serum creatinine or onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary end point was the onset of ESRD alone. We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis to study the independent effect of gender on these end points after adjusting for baseline patient characteristics, and changes from baseline to follow-up systolic blood pressure (SBP) and urine protein (UP) excretion. The total number of patients was 1860: 645 (35%) females and 1215 (65%) males. Mean duration of follow-up was 2.2 years. The proportions randomized to ACEI (51%), mean baseline serum creatinine (2.2 mg/dl) and mean age (52 years) were similar for both genders. Mean baseline SBP was greater in women than in men: 151 vs 147 mmHg (P < 0.001). Mean baseline UP was significantly lower in women compared with men: 1.3 vs 2.1 g/day (P < 0.001). A total of 311 (16.7%) patients developed the primary end point, and 176 (9.5%) developed the secondary end point. The unadjusted relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the primary end point in women vs men was 0.98 (0.77-1.24). It became 1.32 (1.03-1.69) after adjusting for the baseline variables and interaction between ACEIs and baseline UP, and 1.36 (1.06-1.75) after adjusting for baseline variables and changes in SBP and UP during follow-up. Similar results were found for the outcome of ESRD. Our findings suggest that the rate of renal disease progression may not be slower, and may even be faster in women compared with men, after adjusting for other factors associated with a faster rate of progression. We caution that most women in our database were of post-menopausal age, and thus our findings may not extend to younger women.
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              Part 1. Executive Summary

              (2002)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2014
                November 2014
                23 August 2014
                : 39
                : 4
                : 279-288
                Affiliations
                aInternational Kidney Evaluation Association Japan, #702 Ichigaya Linden Bldg., 3-25 Ichigayahonmura-cho, Shinjuku-ku; bDivision of Nephrology, Hypertension and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku; cDivision of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610; dKoujinkai Chuo Clinic, 2-1-6 Tsutsujigaoka, Miyagino-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi 983-0852; eMatsuyama Clinic, 457-1, Tajiri, Oita-shi, Oita 870-1143; fDepartment of Medicine, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666; gNational Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6 Wako-shi Minami, Saitama 351-0197, Japan
                Author notes
                *Kazuyoshi Okada, MD, PhD, International Kidney Evaluation Association Japan, #702 Ichigaya Linden Bldg., 3-25, Ichigayahonmura-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0845 (Japan), Tel. +81-3-5579-8115, Fax +81-3-5579-8116, E-Mail kokada@med.nihon-u.ac.jp
                Article
                355805 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:279-288
                10.1159/000355805
                25196274
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Women, Chronic kidney disease, Albuminuria, Anemia

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