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      Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone


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          Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

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          Pectin-induced changes in cell wall mechanics underlie organ initiation in Arabidopsis.

          Tissue mechanics have been shown to play a key role in the regulation of morphogenesis in animals [1-4] and may have an equally important role in plants [5-9]. The aerial organs of plants are formed at the shoot apical meristem following a specific phyllotactic pattern [10]. The initiation of an organ from the meristem requires a highly localized irreversible surface deformation, which depends on the demethylesterification of cell wall pectins [11]. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate whether these chemical changes lead to changes in tissue mechanics. By mapping the viscoelasticity and elasticity in living meristems, we observed increases in tissue elasticity, correlated with pectin demethylesterification, in primordia and at the site of incipient organs. Measurements of tissue elasticity at various depths showed that, at the site of incipient primordia, the first increases occurred in subepidermal tissues. The results support the following causal sequence of events: (1) demethylesterification of pectin is triggered in subepidermal tissue layers, (2) this contributes to an increase in elasticity of these layers-the first observable mechanical event in organ initiation, and (3) the process propagates to the epidermis during the outgrowth of the organ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Oscillatory synchronization in large-scale cortical networks predicts perception.

            Normal brain function requires the dynamic interaction of functionally specialized but widely distributed cortical regions. Long-range synchronization of oscillatory signals has been suggested to mediate these interactions within large-scale cortical networks, but direct evidence is sparse. Here we show that oscillatory synchronization is organized in such large-scale networks. We implemented an analysis approach that allows for imaging synchronized cortical networks and applied this technique to EEG recordings in humans. We identified two networks: beta-band synchronization (~20 Hz) in a fronto-parieto-occipital network and gamma-band synchronization (~80 Hz) in a centro-temporal network. Strong perceptual correlates support their functional relevance: the strength of synchronization within these networks predicted the subjects' perception of an ambiguous audiovisual stimulus as well as the integration of auditory and visual information. Our results provide evidence that oscillatory neuronal synchronization mediates neuronal communication within frequency-specific, large-scale cortical networks. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Neural Synchrony in Cortical Networks: History, Concept and Current Status

              Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                02 October 2013
                : 4
                : 354
                [1] 1Institute of Cellular and Molecular Botany, Department of Plant Cell Biology, University of Bonn Bonn, Germany
                [2] 2LINV – DiSPAA, Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Science, University of Florence Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Wolfgang Schmidt, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

                Reviewed by: Viktor Zarsky, Charles University, Czech Republic; Stefanie Wienkoop, University of Vienna, Austria; Maria F. Drincovich, Center for Photosynthetic and Biochemical Studies, Rosario National University, Argentina

                *Correspondence: František Baluška, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Botany, Department of Plant Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Kirschallee 1, 53115 Bonn, Germany e-mail: baluska@ 123456uni-bonn.de

                This article was submitted to Plant Systems Biology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science.

                Copyright © Baluška and Mancuso.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 11 June 2013
                : 22 August 2013
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 258, Pages: 15, Words: 0
                Plant Science
                Hypothesis & Theory Article

                Plant science & Botany
                plant roots,plant sensory biology,plant electrophysiology,plant polarity,plant morphogenesis,plant cytoskeleton,plant communication,auxin,neurotransmitter agents


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