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      Integration of genome-scale metabolic networks into whole-body PBPK models shows phenotype-specific cases of drug-induced metabolic perturbation

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          Abstract

          Drug-induced perturbations of the endogenous metabolic network are a potential root cause of cellular toxicity. A mechanistic understanding of such unwanted side effects during drug therapy is therefore vital for patient safety. The comprehensive assessment of such drug-induced injuries requires the simultaneous consideration of both drug exposure at the whole-body and resulting biochemical responses at the cellular level. We here present a computational multi-scale workflow that combines whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and organ-specific genome-scale metabolic network (GSMN) models through shared reactions of the xenobiotic metabolism. The applicability of the proposed workflow is illustrated for isoniazid, a first-line antibacterial agent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is known to cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). We combined GSMN models of a human liver with N-acetyl transferase 2 (NAT2)-phenotype-specific PBPK models of isoniazid. The combined PBPK-GSMN models quantitatively describe isoniazid pharmacokinetics, as well as intracellular responses, and changes in the exometabolome in a human liver following isoniazid administration. Notably, intracellular and extracellular responses identified with the PBPK-GSMN models are in line with experimental and clinical findings. Moreover, the drug-induced metabolic perturbations are distributed and attenuated in the metabolic network in a phenotype-dependent manner. Our simulation results show that a simultaneous consideration of both drug pharmacokinetics at the whole-body and metabolism at the cellular level is mandatory to explain drug-induced injuries at the patient level. The proposed workflow extends our mechanistic understanding of the biochemistry underlying adverse events and may be used to prevent drug-induced injuries in the future.

          Systems toxicology: linking pharmacokinetics to endogenous metabolism

          The genotype of a patient determines the extent of drug-induced metabolic perturbations on the endogenous cellular network of the liver. A team around Lars Kuepfer at Germany’s RWTH Aachen University developed a computational workflow that links drug pharmacokinetics at the whole-body level with a cellular network of the liver. The authors used the competitive cofactor and energy demands in endogenous and drug metabolism to establish a multi-scale model for the antibiotic isoniazid. Their model quantitatively describes how isoniazid pharmacokinetics alter the intracellular liver biochemistry and the utilization of extracellular metabolites in different patient genotypes. The study outlines how a mechanistic understanding of genotype-dependent drug-induced metabolic perturbations may help to explain diverging incidence rates of toxic events in different patient subgroups. This could reduce the occurrence of toxic side effects during drug treatments in the future.

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          Most cited references 60

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          What is flux balance analysis?

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            DrugBank 4.0: shedding new light on drug metabolism

            DrugBank (http://www.drugbank.ca) is a comprehensive online database containing extensive biochemical and pharmacological information about drugs, their mechanisms and their targets. Since it was first described in 2006, DrugBank has rapidly evolved, both in response to user requests and in response to changing trends in drug research and development. Previous versions of DrugBank have been widely used to facilitate drug and in silico drug target discovery. The latest update, DrugBank 4.0, has been further expanded to contain data on drug metabolism, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) and other kinds of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) information. These enhancements are intended to facilitate research in xenobiotic metabolism (both prediction and characterization), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug design/discovery. For this release, >1200 drug metabolites (including their structures, names, activity, abundance and other detailed data) have been added along with >1300 drug metabolism reactions (including metabolizing enzymes and reaction types) and dozens of drug metabolism pathways. Another 30 predicted or measured ADMET parameters have been added to each DrugCard, bringing the average number of quantitative ADMET values for Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs close to 40. Referential nuclear magnetic resonance and MS spectra have been added for almost 400 drugs as well as spectral and mass matching tools to facilitate compound identification. This expanded collection of drug information is complemented by a number of new or improved search tools, including one that provides a simple analyses of drug–target, –enzyme and –transporter associations to provide insight on drug–drug interactions.
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              Quantitative prediction of cellular metabolism with constraint-based models: the COBRA Toolbox v2.0.

              Over the past decade, a growing community of researchers has emerged around the use of constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods to simulate, analyze and predict a variety of metabolic phenotypes using genome-scale models. The COBRA Toolbox, a MATLAB package for implementing COBRA methods, was presented earlier. Here we present a substantial update of this in silico toolbox. Version 2.0 of the COBRA Toolbox expands the scope of computations by including in silico analysis methods developed since its original release. New functions include (i) network gap filling, (ii) (13)C analysis, (iii) metabolic engineering, (iv) omics-guided analysis and (v) visualization. As with the first version, the COBRA Toolbox reads and writes systems biology markup language-formatted models. In version 2.0, we improved performance, usability and the level of documentation. A suite of test scripts can now be used to learn the core functionality of the toolbox and validate results. This toolbox lowers the barrier of entry to use powerful COBRA methods.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +49 241 80 2605 , lars.kuepfer@rwth-aachen.de
                Journal
                NPJ Syst Biol Appl
                NPJ Syst Biol Appl
                NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2056-7189
                26 February 2018
                26 February 2018
                2018
                : 4
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0001 0728 696X, GRID grid.1957.a, Institute of Applied Microbiology—iAMB, Aachen Biology and Biotechnology—ABBt, , RWTH Aachen University, ; 52074 Aachen, Germany
                Article
                48
                10.1038/s41540-018-0048-1
                5827733
                29507756
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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