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      ATM-mediated stabilization of ZEB1 promotes DNA damage response and radioresistance through CHK1

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          Abstract

          Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with characteristics of breast cancer stem cells, including chemoresistance and radioresistance. However, it is unclear whether EMT itself or specific EMT regulators play causal roles in these properties. Here we identify an EMT-inducing transcription factor, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), as a regulator of radiosensitivity and DNA damage response (DDR). Radioresistant subpopulations of breast cancer cells derived from ionizing radiation exhibit hyperactivation of ATM and upregulation of ZEB1, and ZEB1 promotes tumor cell radioresistance in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ATM kinase phosphorylates and stabilizes ZEB1 in response to DNA damage, and ZEB1 in turn directly interacts with USP7 and enhances its ability to deubiquitinate and stabilize CHK1, thereby promoting homologous recombination-dependent DNA repair and resistance to radiation. These findings identify ZEB1 as an ATM substrate linking ATM to CHK1 and as the mechanism underlying the association between EMT and radioresistance.

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          Most cited references 45

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          XRCC3 promotes homology-directed repair of DNA damage in mammalian cells.

          Homology-directed repair of DNA damage has recently emerged as a major mechanism for the maintenance of genomic integrity in mammalian cells. The highly conserved strand transferase, Rad51, is expected to be critical for this process. XRCC3 possesses a limited sequence similarity to Rad51 and interacts with it. Using a novel fluorescence-based assay, we demonstrate here that error-free homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks is decreased 25-fold in an XRCC3-deficient hamster cell line and can be restored to wild-type levels through XRCC3 expression. These results establish that XRCC3-mediated homologous recombination can reverse DNA damage that would otherwise be mutagenic or lethal.
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            The ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 pathways in DNA damage signaling and cancer.

            DNA damage is a key factor both in the evolution and treatment of cancer. Genomic instability is a common feature of cancer cells, fuelling accumulation of oncogenic mutations, while radiation and diverse genotoxic agents remain important, if imperfect, therapeutic modalities. Cellular responses to DNA damage are coordinated primarily by two distinct kinase signaling cascades, the ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 pathways, which are activated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA respectively. Historically, these pathways were thought to act in parallel with overlapping functions; however, more recently it has become apparent that their relationship is more complex. In response to DSBs, ATM is required both for ATR-Chk1 activation and to initiate DNA repair via homologous recombination (HRR) by promoting formation of single-stranded DNA at sites of damage through nucleolytic resection. Interestingly, cells and organisms survive with mutations in ATM or other components required for HRR, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, but at the cost of genomic instability and cancer predisposition. By contrast, the ATR-Chk1 pathway is the principal direct effector of the DNA damage and replication checkpoints and, as such, is essential for the survival of many, although not all, cell types. Remarkably, deficiency for HRR in BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient tumors confers sensitivity to cisplatin and inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), an enzyme required for repair of endogenous DNA damage. In addition, suppressing DNA damage and replication checkpoint responses by inhibiting Chk1 can enhance tumor cell killing by diverse genotoxic agents. Here, we review current understanding of the organization and functions of the ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 pathways and the prospects for targeting DNA damage signaling processes for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              MDC1 directly binds phosphorylated histone H2AX to regulate cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks.

              Histone variant H2AX phosphorylation in response to DNA damage is the major signal for recruitment of DNA-damage-response proteins to regions of damaged chromatin. Loss of H2AX causes radiosensitivity, genome instability, and DNA double-strand-break repair defects, yet the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that mammalian MDC1/NFBD1 directly binds to phospho-H2AX (gammaH2AX) by specifically interacting with the phosphoepitope at the gammaH2AX carboxyl terminus. Moreover, through a combination of biochemical, cell-biological, and X-ray crystallographic approaches, we reveal the molecular details of the MDC1/NFBD1-gammaH2AX complex. These data provide compelling evidence that the MDC1/NFBD1 BRCT repeat domain is the major mediator of gammaH2AX recognition following DNA damage. We further show that MDC1/NFBD1-gammaH2AX complex formation regulates H2AX phosphorylation and is required for normal radioresistance and efficient accumulation of DNA-damage-response proteins on damaged chromatin. Thus, binding of MDC1/NFBD1 to gammaH2AX plays a central role in the mammalian response to DNA damage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                100890575
                21417
                Nat Cell Biol
                Nat. Cell Biol.
                Nature cell biology
                1465-7392
                1476-4679
                25 June 2014
                03 August 2014
                September 2014
                01 March 2015
                : 16
                : 9
                : 864-875
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
                [2 ]Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
                [3 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
                [4 ]Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
                [5 ]Molecular Targets Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Health Sciences Center, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
                [6 ]Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
                [7 ]Center for Molecular Medicine and Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, China Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
                [8 ]Cancer Biology Program, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to: L.M. ( lma4@ 123456mdanderson.org )
                Article
                NIHMS607982
                10.1038/ncb3013
                4150825
                25086746
                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology

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