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      Newcastle disease vaccine adoption by smallholder households in Tanzania: Identifying determinants and barriers

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          Abstract

          Background

          Food security is critical to achieving sustainable growth, poverty reduction, and political and economic stability. Livestock have the potential to improve the food security of smallholder households in developing countries, but livestock productivity is constrained by disease. The extent to which households adopt innovations such as vaccines impacts disease control; however, the behavioral and economic drivers underlying household decisions to adopt or forgo vaccination are not well understood. We address this gap with a study of adoption of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines by chicken-owning households in Tanzania.

          Methods

          A cross-sectional survey was administered to 535 households owning indigenous chickens in Arusha, Singida, and Mbeya regions in Tanzania. We measured potential predictors of ND vaccine adoption including knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors correlated with three stages of household adoption: awareness of ND vaccines, previous vaccination, and recent vaccination (within four months) consistent with veterinary guidelines.

          Results

          Eighty percent of households were aware of ND vaccines, 57% had previously vaccinated, and 26% had recently vaccinated. Knowing someone who vaccinated increased the odds of a household previously vaccinating [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.32, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5]. Larger flock size was also associated with higher odds of previous vaccination (AOR: 1.03 for a one chicken increase, 95% CI: 1.01–1.05). Usage of traditional medicine decreased the odds of previously vaccination (AOR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36–0.95).

          Conclusion

          Our findings suggest that encouraging the flow of professional-level knowledge within the community by vaccine adopters is a strategy to increase vaccine adoption. Enhancing local chicken productivity through increased vaccine coverage would strengthen a key smallholder household resource for food and economic security.

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          Most cited references13

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          Livestock vaccinations translate into increased human capital and school attendance by girls

          African pastoralists’ decision to vaccinate cattle generates significant household income, translating into broad societal goals.
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            Technically sound and sustainable Newcastle disease control in village chickens: lessons learnt over fifteen years

            Village chickens can be found in all developing countries and play a vital role in the livelihood strategies of many poor rural households. The implementation of effective village poultry production programmes in Asia, Africa and Latin America has resulted in increased poultry numbers, household purchasing power, home consumption of poultry products and decision-making power for women. The rapid and wide geographical spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 has drawn attention to the neglect of village poultry health. This crisis has presented an opportunity to invest in improved village poultry husbandry that can make a positive contribution to human development in rural areas across a range of endeavours including: empowerment of women (increased productivity, knowledge, participation in community life as vaccinators, etc); HIV/AIDS mitigation; wildlife conservation through a reduction in bushmeat consumption; improved understanding of disease transmission, prevention and control, human nutrition and hygiene; and, most importantly building trust between communities and government agencies. Key recommendations to support technically sound and sustainable Newcastle disease control programmes in village chickens include encouraging veterinary pharmaceutical manufacturers to develop and observe a code of conduct that supports the supply of appropriate vaccine with an adequate shelf life, giving instructions in local languages, using temperature indicators in vaccine containers and discouraging the payment of commission on the purchase of vaccine. Quality assurance activities should be built into all vaccination programmes to improve cost-efficiency, and should include post-vaccination serological monitoring of a representative sample of birds, especially when a new vaccine or new disease control programme is introduced. Also required is the participation of farmers (male and female) in monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns; and active collaboration with the Ministries of Agriculture, Health and Education in village poultry improvement programmes.
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              Gender aspects in family poultry management systems in developing countries

              Despite efforts to develop intensive poultry production, family poultry (FP) are still very important in developing countries. In most developing countries, the keeping of poultry by local communities has been practised formany generations. FP keeping is a widely practised activity. More than 90% of rural families in most developing countries keep one ormore poultry species (i.e.chickens, ducks, guinea fowls, geese, pigeons, etc.), and all ethnic groups tend to be involved in FP production. Although generally requiring low levels of inputs, FP is an appropriate system for supplying the fast-growing human population with high-quality protein, while providing additional income to the generally resource-poor small farmers, especially women. FP is also a source of employment for underprivileged groups and less-favoured areas in developing countries. However, constraints facing FP production systems are related to high mortality (mainly due to Newcastle disease), housing, feeding, breeding, marketing, credit, education/training, extension and information dissemination. Organizers of FP development programmes must be sufficiently sensitive to socio-cultural and economic circumstances of potential beneficiaries. Developing schemes that aim to promote and improve the FP sub-sectorin a way that is sustainable must not underestimate the specific roles and contributions of relevant members of local communities, as well as their different gender groupsi.e.women, men, boys, girls, young and old persons. Therefore, getting new information and other various interventions to the front line of production requires well-designed gender research. This work, which must be done by multi- and trans-disciplinary teams to ensure that the production environment in which FP-keeping farmers work is fully understood, helps to identify the target groups of FP producers for development programmes such as in training, extension, information dissemination, provision of inputs and credit, marketing of poultry and their products. Ways to improve the productivity of FP management systems by taking into account socio-cultural, especially gender, aspects in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation stages of FP development programmes at community level are also explored.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                24 October 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America
                [2 ] Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST), Arusha, Tanzania
                [3 ] School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America
                [4 ] Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Kisian, Kenya
                The University of Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-18-12685
                10.1371/journal.pone.0206058
                6200240
                30356260
                2a8ca6a7-11b1-417f-bf76-acade894d67c
                © 2018 Campbell et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 16
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000865, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation;
                Award ID: OPP1083453
                This research was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA (grant #OPP1083453) through the Program for Enhancing Health and Productivity of Livestock (PEHPL). The funder’s website can be found here: https://www.gatesfoundation.org/. The findings and conclusions contained are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect positions or policies of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Livestock
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Infectious Diseases
                Infectious Disease Control
                Vaccines
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Birds
                Fowl
                Gamefowl
                Chickens
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Birds
                Poultry
                Chickens
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Immunology
                Vaccination and Immunization
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Immunology
                Vaccination and Immunization
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Public and Occupational Health
                Preventive Medicine
                Vaccination and Immunization
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                Traditional Medicine
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Veterinary Science
                Veterinary Diseases
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Africa
                Tanzania
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Agricultural Economics
                Social Sciences
                Economics
                Agricultural Economics
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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                Uncategorized

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