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    Single copy nuclear gene analysis of polyploidy in wild potatoes (Solanum section Petota)

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        Abstract

        Background

        Recent genomic studies have drastically altered our knowledge of polyploid evolution. Wild potatoes ( Solanum section Petota) are a highly diverse and economically important group of about 100 species widely distributed throughout the Americas. Thirty-six percent of the species in section Petota are polyploid or with diploid and polyploid cytotypes. However, the group is poorly understood at the genomic level and the series is ideal to study polyploid evolution. Two separate studies using the nuclear orthologs GBSSI and nitrate reductase confirmed prior hypotheses of polyploid origins in potato and have shown new origins not proposed before. These studies have been limited, however, by the use of few accessions per polyploid species and by low taxonomic resolution, providing clade-specific, but not species-specific origins within clades. The purpose of the present study is to use six nuclear orthologs, within 54 accessions of 11 polyploid species, 34 accessions of 29 diploid species of section Petota representing their putative progenitors, and two outgroups, to see if phenomena typical of other polyploid groups occur within wild potatoes, to include multiple origins, loss of alleles, or gain of new alleles.

        Results

        Our results increase resolution within clades, giving better ideas of diploid progenitors, and show unexpected complexity of allele sharing within clades. While some species have little diversity among accessions and concur with the GBSSI and nitrate reductase results, such as S. agrimonifolium, S. colombianum, S. hjertingii, and S. moscopanum, the results give much better resolution of species-specific progenitors. Seven other species, however, show variant patterns of allele distributions suggesting multiple origins and allele loss. Complex three-genome origins are supported for S. hougasii, and S. schenckii, and one of the ten accessions of S. stoloniferum. A very unexpected shared presence of alleles occurs within one clade of S. verrucosum from Central America, and S. berthaultii from South America in six polyploid species S. demissum, S. hjertingii, S. hougasii, S. iopetalum, S. schenckii, and S. stoloniferum.

        Conclusions

        Our results document considerable genomic complexity of some wild potato polyploids. These can be explained by multiple hybrid origins and allele losses that provide a clear biological explanation for the taxonomic complexity in wild potato polyploids. These results are of theoretical and practical benefit to potato breeders, and add to a growing body of evidence showing considerable complexity in polyploid plants in general.

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        Most cited references 64

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        The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.

         N Saitou,  M Nei (1987)
        A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.
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          The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools.

          CLUSTAL X is a new windows interface for the widely-used progressive multiple sequence alignment program CLUSTAL W. The new system is easy to use, providing an integrated system for performing multiple sequence and profile alignments and analysing the results. CLUSTAL X displays the sequence alignment in a window on the screen. A versatile sequence colouring scheme allows the user to highlight conserved features in the alignment. Pull-down menus provide all the options required for traditional multiple sequence and profile alignment. New features include: the ability to cut-and-paste sequences to change the order of the alignment, selection of a subset of the sequences to be realigned, and selection of a sub-range of the alignment to be realigned and inserted back into the original alignment. Alignment quality analysis can be performed and low-scoring segments or exceptional residues can be highlighted. Quality analysis and realignment of selected residue ranges provide the user with a powerful tool to improve and refine difficult alignments and to trap errors in input sequences. CLUSTAL X has been compiled on SUN Solaris, IRIX5.3 on Silicon Graphics, Digital UNIX on DECstations, Microsoft Windows (32 bit) for PCs, Linux ELF for x86 PCs, and Macintosh PowerMac.
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            APE: Analyses of Phylogenetics and Evolution in R language.

            Analysis of Phylogenetics and Evolution (APE) is a package written in the R language for use in molecular evolution and phylogenetics. APE provides both utility functions for reading and writing data and manipulating phylogenetic trees, as well as several advanced methods for phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis (e.g. comparative and population genetic methods). APE takes advantage of the many R functions for statistics and graphics, and also provides a flexible framework for developing and implementing further statistical methods for the analysis of evolutionary processes. The program is free and available from the official R package archive at http://cran.r-project.org/src/contrib/PACKAGES.html#ape. APE is licensed under the GNU General Public License.
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              Author and article information

              Affiliations
              [1 ]Department of Horticulture, the State Agricultural Ministry Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, China
              [2 ]Department of Horticulture, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, University of Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI, 53706-1590, USA
              [3 ]Centro Regional de Investigación Remehue, INIA, Xa Región de los Lagos, Km 8 Norte, Ruta 5 Sur, Casilla de Correos 24-O, Osorno, Chile
              [4 ]Departments of Botany and of Statistics, 1300 University Ave., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706-1590, USA
              [5 ]International Potato Center, P.O. Box 1558, Lima, 12, Peru
              [6 ]Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Tower Road, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA
              Contributors
              Journal
              BMC Evol Biol
              BMC Evol. Biol
              BMC Evolutionary Biology
              BioMed Central
              1471-2148
              2012
              24 May 2012
              : 12
              : 70
              3416576
              1471-2148-12-70
              22624678
              10.1186/1471-2148-12-70
              Copyright ©2012 Cai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

              This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

              Categories
              Research Article

              Evolutionary Biology

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