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      External validation of the PUMA COPD diagnostic questionnaire in a general practice sample and the PLATINO study population

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          Abstract

          Background

          A seven-item prescreening questionnaire (gender, age, pack-years smoking, dyspnea, sputum, cough, previous spirometry data) was developed for COPD detection in the primary care setting (PUMA Study) of four Latin America countries.

          Objectives

          To validate the PUMA prescreening COPD questionnaire externally in two different populations (primary care and general).

          Methods

          The PUMA prescreening COPD questionnaire score was applied to subjects from the Hospital Maciel, Montevideo (primary care), case-finding program and the PLATINO population (general) using PUMA study inclusion criteria. Post-bronchodilator FEV 1/FVC <0.70 and lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria were used to define COPD. Area under the received operator curve (ROC AUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive and negative values (PNV), number needed to treat (NNT), and best cut-points of the score were calculated.

          Results

          974 individuals from Hospital Maciel and 2512 from the PLATINO population were eligible, using post-bronchodilator FEV 1/FVC <0.70, 45.1% and 18.7% had COPD, respectively, and using LLN 38.4% and 15.4% had COPD, respectively. From Hospital Maciel (post-bronchodilator FEV 1/FVC <0.70), the best cut-point of ≥6 had moderate discriminatory power (ROC AUC 0.70), sensitivity 69.9%, specificity 62.1%, PNV 70.9%, and NNT of 3. The discriminatory power was 0.73 (ROC AUC) in the PLATINO population with three potential cut-points (Youden’s index): ≥3 (sensitivity 85.4%, specificity 46.9%), ≥4 (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 66.5%), and ≥5 (sensitivity 51.5%, specificity 81.6%); the PNV at each cut-point was 93.3%, 89.9%, and 88.0%, respectively. The NNT was 5 for scores ≥3 and ≥4, and 4 for ≥5. The mean accuracy using the LLN for Hospital Maciel and PLATINO was 0.67 and 0.70, respectively.

          Conclusion

          External validation of the PUMA prescreening questionnaire in two Latin American populations (general and primary care) suggests moderate accuracy, similar to the original study in which the questionnaire was developed.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Prevalence, severity and underdiagnosis of COPD in the primary care setting.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease with a steadily increasing prevalence and mortality. However, recent epidemiological estimates differ depending on the population studied and methods used. To investigate the prevalence, severity and burden of COPD in a primary care setting. From 4730 patients registered in a single primary care practice, all 2250 patients aged 40 years or more were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking, respiratory symptoms, education and social status. A physical examination was followed by pre- and post-bronchodilator (BD) spirometry. Of the eligible patients, 1960 (87%) participated. 92% of spirometric tests met the ATS criteria. Airflow limitation was demonstrated in 299 (15%) of the participants pre-BD and in 211 (11%) post-BD. COPD was diagnosed in 183 patients (9.3%). Of these patients, the degree of post-BD airflow limitation was mild in 30.6%, moderate in 51.4%, severe in 15.3% and very severe in 2.7%. Only 18.6% of these patients had previously been diagnosed with COPD; almost all of these had severe or very severe airflow limitation. As a result of the study, a diagnosis of asthma was made in 122 patients. The prevalence and underdiagnosis of COPD in adult patients in this primary care setting made case finding worthwhile. Large numbers of newly detected patients were symptomatic and needed treatment. Limiting investigations to smokers would have reduced the number of COPD diagnoses by 26%.
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            Determinants of underdiagnosis of COPD in national and international surveys.

            COPD ranks within the top three causes of mortality in the global burden of disease, yet it remains largely underdiagnosed. We assessed the underdiagnosis of COPD and its determinants in national and international surveys of general populations.
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              Is Open Access

              Development and Initial Validation of a Self-Scored COPD Population Screener Questionnaire (COPD-PS)

              COPD has a profound impact on daily life, yet remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. We set out to develop a brief, reliable, self-scored questionnaire to identify individuals likely to have COPD. COPD-PS™ development began with a list of concepts identified for inclusion using expert opinion from a clinician working group comprised of pulmonologists (n = 5) and primary care clinicians (n = 5). A national survey of 697 patients was conducted at 12 practitioner sites. Logistic regression identified items discriminating between patients with and without fixed airflow obstruction (AO, postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70%). ROC analyses evaluated screening accuracy, compared scoring options, and assessed concurrent validity. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed via COPD-PS and SF-12v2 score correlations. For known-groups validation, COPD-PS differences between clinical groups were tested. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a 20% sample. Of 697 patients surveyed, 295 patients met expert review criteria for spirometry performance; 38% of these (n = 113) had results indicating AO. Five items positively predicted AO (p < 0.0001): breathlessness, productive cough, activity limitation, smoking history, and age. COPD-PS scores accurately classified AO status (area under ROC curve = 0.81) and reliable (r = 0.91). Patients with spirometry indicative of AO scored significantly higher (6.8, SD = 1.9; p < 0.0001) than patients without AO (4.0, SD = 2.3). Higher scores were associated with more severe AO, bronchodilator use, and overnight hospitalization for breathing problems. With the prevalence of COPD in the studied cohort, a score on the COPD-PS of greater than five was associated with a positive predictive value of 56.8% and negative predictive value of 86.4%. The COPD-PS accurately classified physician-reported COPD (AUC = 0.89). The COPD-PS is a brief, accurate questionnaire that can identify individuals likely to have COPD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                On behalf of : On behalf of the PLATINO team
                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                26 August 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 1901-1911
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary, Universidad de la República , Montevideo, Uruguay
                [2 ]Department of Pulmonary, Universidad Central de Venezuela , Caracas, Venezuela
                [3 ]Department of Pulmonary, Federal University of Pelotas , Pelotas, Brazil
                [4 ]Department of Pulmonary, AstraZeneca , San Jose, Costa Rica
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Maria Victorina Lopez VarelaUniversidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Hospital Maciel , Montevideo11200, UruguayTel +598 9 961 7256Email victorina.lopezvarela@gmail.com
                Article
                206250
                10.2147/COPD.S206250
                6717054
                © 2019 Lopez Varela et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 24, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                latin america, copd, validation, primary care, diagnostic questionnaire

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