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      Effects of Off-Pump and On-Pump Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting at 1 Year

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          Abstract

          Previously, we reported that there was no significant difference at 30 days in the rate of a primary composite outcome of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or new renal failure requiring dialysis between patients who underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed with a beating-heart technique (off-pump) and those who underwent CABG performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump). We now report results on quality of life and cognitive function and on clinical outcomes at 1 year. We enrolled 4752 patients with coronary artery disease who were scheduled to undergo CABG and randomly assigned them to undergo the procedure off-pump or on-pump. Patients were enrolled at 79 centers in 19 countries. We assessed quality of life and cognitive function at discharge, at 30 days, and at 1 year and clinical outcomes at 1 year. At 1 year, there was no significant difference in the rate of the primary composite outcome between off-pump and on-pump CABG (12.1% and 13.3%, respectively; hazard ratio with off-pump CABG, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.07; P=0.24). The rate of the primary outcome was also similar in the two groups in the period between 31 days and 1 year (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.13; P=0.19). The rate of repeat coronary revascularization at 1 year was 1.4% in the off-pump group and 0.8% in the on-pump group (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.95 to 2.89; P=0.07). There were no significant differences between the two groups at 1 year in measures of quality of life or neurocognitive function. At 1 year after CABG, there was no significant difference between off-pump and on-pump CABG with respect to the primary composite outcome, the rate of repeat coronary revascularization, quality of life, or neurocognitive function. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; CORONARY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00463294.).

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          Most cited references 18

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          Two-year outcomes after transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement.

          The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial showed that among high-risk patients with aortic stenosis, the 1-year survival rates are similar with transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical replacement. However, longer-term follow-up is necessary to determine whether TAVR has prolonged benefits. At 25 centers, we randomly assigned 699 high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis to undergo either surgical aortic-valve replacement or TAVR. All patients were followed for at least 2 years, with assessment of clinical outcomes and echocardiographic evaluation. The rates of death from any cause were similar in the TAVR and surgery groups (hazard ratio with TAVR, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.15; P=0.41) and at 2 years (Kaplan-Meier analysis) were 33.9% in the TAVR group and 35.0% in the surgery group (P=0.78). The frequency of all strokes during follow-up did not differ significantly between the two groups (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.23; P=0.52). At 30 days, strokes were more frequent with TAVR than with surgical replacement (4.6% vs. 2.4%, P=0.12); subsequently, there were 8 additional strokes in the TAVR group and 12 in the surgery group. Improvement in valve areas was similar with TAVR and surgical replacement and was maintained for 2 years. Paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR (P<0.001), and even mild paravalvular regurgitation was associated with increased late mortality (P<0.001). A 2-year follow-up of patients in the PARTNER trial supports TAVR as an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. The two treatments were similar with respect to mortality, reduction in symptoms, and improved valve hemodynamics, but paravalvular regurgitation was more frequent after TAVR and was associated with increased late mortality. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00530894.).
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            Need for expertise based randomised controlled trials.

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              Changes in cognitive abilities over a 4-year period are unfavorably affected in elderly diabetic subjects: results of the Epidemiology of Vascular Aging Study.

              To compare 4-year changes in cognitive performance among elderly subjects according to category of fasting blood glucose (FBG) using American Diabetes Association criteria. Subjects without any detectable cognitive dysfunction were selected from the Epidemiology of Vascular Aging (EVA) Study, a cohort of community-dlwelling people aged 59-71 years at baseline. They were classified into glucose categories (normal, impaired fasting glucose [IFG], or diabetic) based on FBG values or known diabetes. Their cognitive abilities were assessed by a global test (Mini Mental Status Examination [MMSE]) and eight domain-specific tests, and they were reassessed 4 years later. Serious cognitive worsening was defined as a score evolution into the worst 15% of the sample's distribution of score differences (4-year score minus baseline score) for each test. At baseline, age-, sex-, and education-adjusted scores for all cognitive tests except one were similar across glucose categories. After 4 years, diabetic subjects had a lower performance on all tests except the MMSE, with differences reaching statistical significance on four tests. Adjusted odds ratios for serious worsening over 4 years in diabetic subjects, with reference to normal subjects, were >2 for four tests (P < 0.05) and bordering this value for two others (P < 0.09). Further adjustment for blood pressure or potential cognition-affecting substances (alcohol, tobacco, and medications) did not modify these results. Despite similar high initial cognitive function, diabetic subjects tended to have an unfavorable evolution of cognitive performance over 4 years compared with subjects who had normal glucose or IFG.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                March 28 2013
                March 28 2013
                : 368
                : 13
                : 1179-1188
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1301228
                23477676
                © 2013
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