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      Current Trends in the Application of Nanomaterials for the Removal of Emerging Micropollutants and Pathogens from Water


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          Water resources contamination has a worldwide impact and is a cause of global concern. The need for provision of clean water is becoming more and more demanding. Nanotechnology may support effective strategies for the treatment, use and reuse of water and the development of next-generation water supply systems. The excellent properties and effectiveness of nanomaterials make them particularly suitable for water/wastewater treatment. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the main categories of nanomaterials used in catalytic processes (carbon nanotubes/graphitic carbon nitride (CNT/g-C 3N 4) composites/graphene-based composites, metal oxides and composites, metal–organic framework and commercially available nanomaterials). These materials have found application in the removal of different categories of pollutants, including pharmaceutically active compounds, personal care products, organic micropollutants, as well as for the disinfection of bacterial, viral and protozoa microbial targets, in water and wastewater matrices. Apart from reviewing the characteristics and efficacy of the aforementioned nanoengineered materials for the removal of different pollutants, we have also recorded performance limitations issues (e.g., toxicity, operating conditions and reuse) for their practical application in water and wastewater treatment on large scale. Research efforts and continuous production are expected to support the development of eco-friendly, economic and efficient nanomaterials for real life applications in the near future.

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          Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks: Design, Synthesis, and Applications

          Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of porous materials with potential applications in gas storage, separations, catalysis, and chemical sensing. Despite numerous advantages, applications of many MOFs are ultimately limited by their stability under harsh conditions. Herein, the recent advances in the field of stable MOFs, covering the fundamental mechanisms of MOF stability, design, and synthesis of stable MOF architectures, and their latest applications are reviewed. First, key factors that affect MOF stability under certain chemical environments are introduced to guide the design of robust structures. This is followed by a short review of synthetic strategies of stable MOFs including modulated synthesis and postsynthetic modifications. Based on the fundamentals of MOF stability, stable MOFs are classified into two categories: high-valency metal-carboxylate frameworks and low-valency metal-azolate frameworks. Along this line, some representative stable MOFs are introduced, their structures are described, and their properties are briefly discussed. The expanded applications of stable MOFs in Lewis/Brønsted acid catalysis, redox catalysis, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, gas storage, and sensing are highlighted. Overall, this review is expected to guide the design of stable MOFs by providing insights into existing structures, which could lead to the discovery and development of more advanced functional materials.
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            Size-dependent bacterial growth inhibition and mechanism of antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

            The antibacterial properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated using both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. These studies demonstrate that ZnO nanoparticles have a wide range of antibacterial activities toward various microorganisms that are commonly found in environmental settings. The antibacterial activity of the ZnO nanoparticles was inversely proportional to the size of the nanoparticles in S. aureus. Surprisingly, the antibacterial activity did not require specific UV activation using artificial lamps, rather activation was achieved under ambient lighting conditions. Northern analyses of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) specific genes and confocal microscopy suggest that the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles might involve both the production of reactive oxygen species and the accumulation of nanoparticles in the cytoplasm or on the outer membranes. Overall, the experimental results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles could be developed as antibacterial agents against a wide range of microorganisms to control and prevent the spreading and persistence of bacterial infections.
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              Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment.

              Providing clean and affordable water to meet human needs is a grand challenge of the 21st century. Worldwide, water supply struggles to keep up with the fast growing demand, which is exacerbated by population growth, global climate change, and water quality deterioration. The need for technological innovation to enable integrated water management cannot be overstated. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. The discussion covers candidate nanomaterials, properties and mechanisms that enable the applications, advantages and limitations as compared to existing processes, and barriers and research needs for commercialization. By tracing these technological advances to the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, the present review outlines the opportunities and limitations to further capitalize on these unique properties for sustainable water management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                26 April 2020
                May 2020
                : 25
                : 9
                : 2016
                [1 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras, Greece
                [2 ]School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Chania, Greece
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: pkokkin@ 123456upatras.gr ; Tel.: +30-6972025932
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 06 March 2020
                : 21 April 2020

                nanomaterials,catalytic processes,degradation,disinfection,carbon based,graphene,metal oxides,composites,metal organic frameworks,pharmaceuticals,microorganisms


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