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      Occurrence of OXA-48 Carbapenemase and Other β-Lactamase Genes in ESBL-Producing Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli from Dogs and Cats in the United States, 2009–2013

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          Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) and carbapenemases among ESBL-producing multidrug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli from dogs and cats in the United States.

          Methods: Of 2443 E.coli isolated from dogs and cats collected between August 2009 and January 2013, 68 isolates were confirmed as ESBL-producing MDR ones. PCR and sequencing were performed to identify β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, and shed light on the virulence gene profiles, phylogenetic groups and ST types.

          Results: Phylogenic group D and B2 accounted for 69.1% of the isolates. 50 (73.5%) isolates carried CTX-M ESBL gene, and the most predominant specific CTX-M subtype identified was bla CTX−M−15 ( n = 33), followed by bla CTX−M−1 ( n = 32), bla CTX−M−123 ( n = 27), bla CTX−M−9 ( n = 19) and bla CTX−M−14 ( n = 19), and bla CTX−M−123 was firstly reported in E. coli isolates in the United States alone or in association. Other β-lactamase genes bla TEM, bla SHV, bla OXA−48, and bla CMY−2 were detected in 41.2, 29.4, 19.1, and 17.6% of 68 ESBL-producing MDR isolates, respectively. The bla TEM and bla SHV genes were classfied as ESBLs with the exception of the bla TEM−1 gene. Additionally, 42.6% (29/68) of isolates co-expressed bla CTX−M−15 and PMQR gene aac(6)-Ib-c. The overall occurrence of virulence genes ranged from 11.8 ( ireA) to 88.2% ( malX), and most of virulence genes were less frequent among CTX-M-producing isolates than non-CTX-M isolates with the exception of malX and iutA. The 68 isolates analyzed were assigned to 31 STs with six being novel. Three pandemic clonal lineages ST131 ( n = 10), ST648 ( n = 9), and ST405 ( n = 9) accounted for more than 41% of the investigated isolates, and ST648 and ST405 of phylogenetic D were firstly reported in E. coli from dogs and cats in the United States.

          Conclusion: bla CTX−M−123 of ESBLs and carbapenemase bla OXA−48 were firstly reported in ESBL-producing MDR E.coli from dogs and cats in the United States, and ST131, ST648, and ST405 were the predominant clonal groups.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Intercontinental emergence of Escherichia coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15.

          Concomitant with the recent emergence of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), Escherichia coli has become the enterobacterial species most affected by ESBLs. Multiple locales are encountering CTX-M-positive E. coli, including specifically CTX-M-15. To gain insights into the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we assessed clonality and diversity of virulence profiles within an international collection of CTX-M-15-positive E. coli. Forty-one ESBL-positive E. coli isolates from eight countries and three continents (Europe, Asia and North America) were selected for study based on suspected clonality. Phylogenetic group, ERIC2 PCR profile, O H serotype, AmpC variant and antibiotic susceptibility were determined. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PFGE provided additional discrimination. Virulence potential was inferred by detection of 46 virulence factor (VF) genes. Thirty-six (88%) of the 41 E. coli isolates exhibited the same set of core characteristics: phylogenetic group B2, ERIC2 PCR profile 1, serotype O25:H4, AmpC EC6, ciprofloxacin resistance and MLST profile ST131. By PFGE, the 36 isolates constituted one large cluster at the 68% similarity level; this comprised 17 PFGE groups (defined at 85% similarity), some of which included strains from different countries. The 36 isolates exhibited highly (91% to 100%) similar VF profiles. We describe a broadly disseminated, CTX-M-15-positive and virulent E. coli clonal group with highly homogeneous virulence genotypes and subgroups exhibiting highly similar PFGE profiles, suggesting recent emergence. Understanding how this clone has emerged and successfully disseminated within the hospital and community, including across national boundaries, should be a public health priority.
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            OXA-48-like carbapenemases: the phantom menace.

            OXA-48-type carbapenem-hydrolysing class D β-lactamases are increasingly reported in enterobacterial species. To date, six OXA-48-like variants have been identified, with OXA-48 being the most widespread. They differ by a few amino acid substitutions or deletions (one to five amino acids). The enzymes hydrolyse penicillins at a high level and carbapenems at a low level, sparing broad-spectrum cephalosporins, and are not susceptible to β-lactamase inhibitors. When combining permeability defects, OXA-48-like producers may exhibit a high level of resistance to carbapenems. OXA-163 is an exception, hydrolysing broad-spectrum cephalosporins but carbapenems at a very low level, and being susceptible to β-lactamase inhibitors. The bla(OXA-48)-type genes are always plasmid-borne and have been identified in association with insertion sequences involved in their acquisition and expression. The current spread of the bla(OXA-48) gene is mostly linked to the dissemination of a single IncL/M-type self-transferable plasmid of 62 kb that does not carry any additional resistance gene. OXA-48-type carbapenemases have been identified mainly from North African countries, the Middle East, Turkey and India, those areas constituting the most important reservoirs; however, occurrence of OXA-48 producers in European countries is now well documented, with some reported hospital outbreaks. Since many OXA-48-like producers do not exhibit resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, or only decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, their recognition and detection can be challenging. Adequate screening and detection methods are therefore required to prevent and control their dissemination.
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              Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli: A Combination of Virulence with Antibiotic Resistance

              Escherichia coli represents an incredible versatile and diverse enterobacterial species and can be subdivided into the following; (i) intestinal non-pathogenic, commensal isolates. (ii) Intestinal pathogenic isolates and (iii) extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli or ExPEC isolates. The presence to several putative virulence genes has been positively linked with the pathogenicity of ExPEC. E. coli remains one of the most frequent causes of nosocomial and community-acquired bacterial infections including urinary tract infections, enteric infections, and systemic infections in humans. ExPEC has emerged in 2000s as an important player in the resistance to antibiotics including the cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Most importantly among ExPEC is the increasing recognition of isolates producing “newer β-lactamases” that consists of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (e.g., CMY), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (e.g., CTX-M), and carbapenemases (e.g., NDM). This review will highlight aspects of virulence associated with ExPEC, provide a brief overview of plasmid-mediated resistance to β-lactams including the characteristics of the successful international sequence types such as ST38, ST131, ST405, and ST648 among ExPEC.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                11 July 2016
                : 7
                1Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University Yangling, China
                2Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University Auburn, AL, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Benoit Doublet, National Institute for Agricultural Research, France

                Reviewed by: Jean-Yves Madec, ANSES-French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, France; Angela Novais, UCIBIO-Research Unit on Applied Molecular Biosciences, Portugal

                *Correspondence: Xiaoqiang Liu liuxiaoqiang142@

                This article was submitted to Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2016 Liu, Thungrat and Boothe.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 10, Words: 6648
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