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      Assessment of the efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil-permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act ®/Frontect ®) against egg laying and adult emergence of the cat flea ( Ctenocephalides felis) in dogs Translated title: Évaluation de l’efficacité d’une association topique de fipronil-perméthrine (Frontline Tri-Act ®/Frontect ®) contre la ponte et l’émergence de la puce du chat ( Ctenocephalides felis) chez le chien

      1 , * , 1 , 1 , 2

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Dogs, Fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®, Fipronil, Permethrin, Egg laying

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          Abstract

          This study was conducted to assess the prevention of egg laying and the inhibition of the emergence of the cat flea ( Ctenocephalides felis) resulting from the application of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act ®/Frontect ®, Merial) on dogs. Sixteen healthy dogs were included after pre-treatment live flea counts and randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs served as untreated controls and 8 dogs were treated on Day 0 and Day 30 with topical application of fipronil/permethrin at the minimum dose of 6.76 mg/kg fipronil and 50.48 mg/kg permethrin. On days −2, 7, 21, 28, 42 and 56, each dog was infested with 100 fleas. Flea eggs were collected from each dog in individual trays from 12 to 36 h after treatment or each flea re-infestation. All fleas were removed by combing and counted 36 h after treatment or infestations. The collected eggs were counted and incubated for 28 days for larval development and adult emergence assessment. The curative efficacy of Frontline Tri-Act ®/Frontect ® against adult fleas 36 h after treatment was 95.3% and the efficacy remained 100% after subsequent flea infestations for 8 weeks. Compared to the control group, the treatment reduced egg laying by 84.5% within 36 h after first treatment and was 99.9%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% on collection days 7, 21, 29, 43 and 57, respectively. Frontline Tri-Act ®/Frontect ® reduced by 28.7% the emergence of new adult fleas from eggs laid during the 48 h of pre-treatment infestation. The inhibition of adult emergence from incubated flea eggs could not be assessed after flea re-infestation in the treated group as no eggs were collected.

          Translated abstract

          Cette étude a été conduite pour estimer la réduction de production d’œufs de puces ainsi que l’inhibition d’émergence de nouvelles puces du chat ( Ctenocephalides felis) suite au traitement de chiens par application de la combinaison de fipronil et de perméthrine (Frontline Tri-Act ®/Frontect ®, Merial). Seize chiens sains ont été inclus et répartis de façon aléatoire en deux groupes après infestation et comptage de puces avant traitement. Huit chiens ont servi de contrôles non traités tandis que 8 chiens ont été traités aux jours 0 et 30 par application topique (« spot on ») d’une formulation de fipronil/perméthrine à la dose minimale de 6.76 mg/kg de fipronil et 50.48 mg/kg de perméthrine. Aux jours −2, 7, 21, 28, 42 et 56 chaque chien a été infesté par 100 puces. Les œufs de puces ont été récoltés sur des plateaux à partir de chaque chien mis en cage individuelle entre 12 et 36 heures après traitement ou après chaque infestation. Toutes les puces ont été retirées par peignage et comptées au terme de ces 36 heures post traitement ou infestation. Les œufs collectés ont été comptés puis incubés durant 28 jours de façon à obtenir un développement larvaire et à estimer l’émergence de nouvelles puces. L’efficacité curative à 36 heures post-traitement de Frontline Tri-Act ®/Frontect ® vis-à-vis des puces adultes étaient de 95.3 % et l’efficacité préventive vis-à-vis des infestations hebdomadaires est restée à 100 % durant 8 semaines. Comparé au groupe contrôle, le traitement a réduit la production d’oeufs de puces de 84.5 % 36 heures après application, puis a réduit la production d’œufs de 99.9 %, 100 %, 100 %, 100 %, 100 % pour les collectes des jours 7, 21, 29, 43 et 57, respectivement. Frontline Tri-Act ®/Frontect ® a réduit de 28.7 % l’émergence de nouvelles puces à partir des oeufs issus des puces ayant été déposées sur les chiens 48 heures avant traitement. L’inhibition de l’émergence de nouvelles puces n’a pu être étudiée à partir des ré-infestations de puces dans le groupe traité puisqu’aucun œuf n’a été récolté.

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          Most cited references 16

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          World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition: guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestations on dogs and cats.

          These second edition guidelines, updated from the 2007 version (Marchiondo et al., 2007), are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. Major revisions to this second edition include guidelines on the assessment of systemic flea and tick products, an update of the geographical distribution of the common fleas and ticks species on dogs and cats, determination of flea and tick efficacy based on geometric versus arithmetic means with respect to geographic regulatory agencies, modification of tick categorization in the assessment of efficacy, expanded guidelines on repellency and anti-feeding effects, enhanced practical field study guidance, and considerations on the ranges of flea and ticks for infestations in laboratory studies. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist regulatory authorities involved in the approval and registration of new topical or systemic ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures.
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            Insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats

            This review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. We introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. Our purpose is to provide the veterinary practitioner with information needed to investigate suspected lack of efficacy, respond to lack of efficacy complaints from their clients, and evaluate the relative importance of resistance as they strive to relieve their patients and satisfy their clients when faced with flea and tick infestations that are difficult to resolve. We conclude that causality of suspected lack of insecticide/acaricide efficacy is most likely treatment deficiency, not resistance.
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              Flea and tick control in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities.

              Historically, veterinarians have told their clients that one flea is all that is necessary to produce and maintain the clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (FAD). Newer adulticides, such as fipronil, imidacloprid, nitenpyram and selamectin, have had a positive clinical effect on dogs and cats with FAD. However, data on flea feeding and the effect of these products on flea feeding bring into question the once perceived dogma of the single flea bite concept. Current data would indicate that the primary role of these insecticides in managing FAD is in rapidly reducing flea numbers and reducing flea feeding rather than preventing flea bites. Controlling tick infestations is important not only because ticks are nuisance parasites of dogs and cats, but also because they are vectors of a variety of bacterial and protozoal diseases. Achieving satisfactory tick control is often difficult due to unrealistic expectations of pet owners, to residual acaricidal properties of products that are often less than 100% and because of constant re-infestation pressure. Some of the most important factors veterinarians must be aware of are regional changes in tick distributions, our inability to control wildlife tick hosts and expectation differences between flea and tick control. These factors probably cause most real and perceived product failures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2016
                19 December 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Merial S.A.S. 29 Av. Tony Garnier 69007 Lyon France
                [2 ] ClinVet International (Pty) Ltd. Uitsig Road, Bainsvlei 9321 Bloemfontein South Africa
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: frederic.beugnet@ 123456merial.com
                Article
                parasite160081 10.1051/parasite/2016068
                10.1051/parasite/2016068
                5178383
                27991415
                © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 3, References: 20, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Article

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