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      Targeted Data Extraction of the MS/MS Spectra Generated by Data-independent Acquisition: A New Concept for Consistent and Accurate Proteome Analysis

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          Abstract

          Most proteomic studies use liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantify the peptides generated by the proteolysis of a biological sample. However, with the current methods it remains challenging to rapidly, consistently, reproducibly, accurately, and sensitively detect and quantify large fractions of proteomes across multiple samples. Here we present a new strategy that systematically queries sample sets for the presence and quantity of essentially any protein of interest. It consists of using the information available in fragment ion spectral libraries to mine the complete fragment ion maps generated using a data-independent acquisition method. For this study, the data were acquired on a fast, high resolution quadrupole-quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) instrument by repeatedly cycling through 32 consecutive 25-Da precursor isolation windows (swaths). This SWATH MS acquisition setup generates, in a single sample injection, time-resolved fragment ion spectra for all the analytes detectable within the 400-1200 m/z precursor range and the user-defined retention time window. We show that suitable combinations of fragment ions extracted from these data sets are sufficiently specific to confidently identify query peptides over a dynamic range of 4 orders of magnitude, even if the precursors of the queried peptides are not detectable in the survey scans. We also show that queried peptides are quantified with a consistency and accuracy comparable with that of selected reaction monitoring, the gold standard proteomic quantification method. Moreover, targeted data extraction enables ad libitum quantification refinement and dynamic extension of protein probing by iterative re-mining of the once-and-forever acquired data sets. This combination of unbiased, broad range precursor ion fragmentation and targeted data extraction alleviates most constraints of present proteomic methods and should be equally applicable to the comprehensive analysis of other classes of analytes, beyond proteomics.

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          Most cited references 38

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          MassBank: a public repository for sharing mass spectral data for life sciences.

          MassBank is the first public repository of mass spectra of small chemical compounds for life sciences (<3000 Da). The database contains 605 electron-ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), 137 fast atom bombardment MS and 9276 electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS(n) data of 2337 authentic compounds of metabolites, 11 545 EI-MS and 834 other-MS data of 10,286 volatile natural and synthetic compounds, and 3045 ESI-MS(2) data of 679 synthetic drugs contributed by 16 research groups (January 2010). ESI-MS(2) data were analyzed under nonstandardized, independent experimental conditions. MassBank is a distributed database. Each research group provides data from its own MassBank data servers distributed on the Internet. MassBank users can access either all of the MassBank data or a subset of the data by specifying one or more experimental conditions. In a spectral search to retrieve mass spectra similar to a query mass spectrum, the similarity score is calculated by a weighted cosine correlation in which weighting exponents on peak intensity and the mass-to-charge ratio are optimized to the ESI-MS(2) data. MassBank also provides a merged spectrum for each compound prepared by merging the analyzed ESI-MS(2) data on an identical compound under different collision-induced dissociation conditions. Data merging has significantly improved the precision of the identification of a chemical compound by 21-23% at a similarity score of 0.6. Thus, MassBank is useful for the identification of chemical compounds and the publication of experimental data. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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            Comprehensive mass-spectrometry-based proteome quantification of haploid versus diploid yeast.

            Mass spectrometry is a powerful technology for the analysis of large numbers of endogenous proteins. However, the analytical challenges associated with comprehensive identification and relative quantification of cellular proteomes have so far appeared to be insurmountable. Here, using advances in computational proteomics, instrument performance and sample preparation strategies, we compare protein levels of essentially all endogenous proteins in haploid yeast cells to their diploid counterparts. Our analysis spans more than four orders of magnitude in protein abundance with no discrimination against membrane or low level regulatory proteins. Stable-isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) quantification was very accurate across the proteome, as demonstrated by one-to-one ratios of most yeast proteins. Key members of the pheromone pathway were specific to haploid yeast but others were unaltered, suggesting an efficient control mechanism of the mating response. Several retrotransposon-associated proteins were specific to haploid yeast. Gene ontology analysis pinpointed a significant change for cell wall components in agreement with geometrical considerations: diploid cells have twice the volume but not twice the surface area of haploid cells. Transcriptome levels agreed poorly with proteome changes overall. However, after filtering out low confidence microarray measurements, messenger RNA changes and SILAC ratios correlated very well for pheromone pathway components. Systems-wide, precise quantification directly at the protein level opens up new perspectives in post-genomics and systems biology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
                Mol Cell Proteomics
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                1535-9476
                1535-9484
                June 12 2012
                June 2012
                June 2012
                January 18 2012
                : 11
                : 6
                : O111.016717
                Article
                10.1074/mcp.O111.016717
                3433915
                22261725
                © 2012

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