27
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Comprehensive analysis of heterochromatin- and RNAi-mediated epigenetic control of the fission yeast genome.

      Nature genetics

      DNA Methylation, Epigenesis, Genetic, Genome, Fungal, Heterochromatin, physiology, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, RNA Interference, RNA, Messenger, genetics, Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Retroelements, Schizosaccharomyces

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The organization of eukaryotic genomes into distinct structural and functional domains is important for the regulation and transduction of genetic information. Here, we investigated heterochromatin and euchromatin profiles of the entire fission yeast genome and explored the role of RNA interference (RNAi) in genome organization. Histone H3 methylated at Lys4, which defines euchromatin, was not only distributed across most of the chromosomal landscape but was also present at the centromere core, the site of kinetochore assembly. In contrast, histone H3 methylated at Lys9 and its interacting protein Swi6/HP1, which define heterochromatin, coated extended domains associated with a variety of repeat elements and small islands corresponding to meiotic genes. Notably, RNAi components were distributed throughout all these heterochromatin domains, and their localization depended on Clr4/Suv39h histone methyltransferase. Sequencing of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) associated with the RITS RNAi effector complex identified hot spots of siRNAs, which mapped to a diverse array of elements in these RNAi-heterochromatin domains. We found that Clr4/Suv39h predominantly silenced repeat elements whose derived transcripts, transcribed mainly by RNA polymerase II, serve as a source for siRNAs. Our analyses also uncover an important role for the RNAi machinery in maintaining genomic integrity.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 33

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Selective recognition of methylated lysine 9 on histone H3 by the HP1 chromo domain.

          Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is localized at heterochromatin sites where it mediates gene silencing. The chromo domain of HP1 is necessary for both targeting and transcriptional repression. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the correct localization of Swi6 (the HP1 equivalent) depends on Clr4, a homologue of the mammalian SUV39H1 histone methylase. Both Clr4 and SUV39H1 methylate specifically lysine 9 of histone H3 (ref. 6). Here we show that HP1 can bind with high affinity to histone H3 methylated at lysine 9 but not at lysine 4. The chromo domain of HP1 is identified as its methyl-lysine-binding domain. A point mutation in the chromo domain, which destroys the gene silencing activity of HP1 in Drosophila, abolishes methyl-lysine-binding activity. Genetic and biochemical analysis in S. pombe shows that the methylase activity of Clr4 is necessary for the correct localization of Swi6 at centromeric heterochromatin and for gene silencing. These results provide a stepwise model for the formation of a transcriptionally silent heterochromatin: SUV39H1 places a 'methyl marker' on histone H3, which is then recognized by HP1 through its chromo domain. This model may also explain the stable inheritance of the heterochromatic state.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            RNA silencing in plants.

            There are at least three RNA silencing pathways for silencing specific genes in plants. In these pathways, silencing signals can be amplified and transmitted between cells, and may even be self-regulated by feedback mechanisms. Diverse biological roles of these pathways have been established, including defence against viruses, regulation of gene expression and the condensation of chromatin into heterochromatin. We are now in a good position to investigate the full extent of this functional diversity in genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of genome control.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              RNA interference is mediated by 21- and 22-nucleotide RNAs.

               S. Elbashir (2001)
              Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing in many organisms by a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). Using a Drosophila in vitro system, we demonstrate that 21- and 22-nt RNA fragments are the sequence-specific mediators of RNAi. The short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are generated by an RNase III-like processing reaction from long dsRNA. Chemically synthesized siRNA duplexes with overhanging 3' ends mediate efficient target RNA cleavage in the lysate, and the cleavage site is located near the center of the region spanned by the guiding siRNA. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the direction of dsRNA processing determines whether sense or antisense target RNA can be cleaved by the siRNA-protein complex.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                15976807
                10.1038/ng1602

                Comments

                Comment on this article