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      Relationship between HSP70-2 A+1267G Polymorphism and Cardiovascular Events of Chinese Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are expressed by cells in response to various environmental stresses. A single-nucleotide polymorphism A+1267G of the HSPA1B gene affects the expression of HSP70-2, with the A allele being protective against inflammatory conditions. We investigated the relation between the HSP A+1267G polymorphism and the clinical outcomes of Chinese peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods: We studied 347 new PD cases (181 males, age 56.6 ± 13.7 years). Genotyping was done by standard methods. Patients were followed for 40.5 ± 20.7 months for survival analysis. Results: For the entire cohort, there was no difference in the 5-year survival between genotype groups. However, there was a significant interaction between HSP polymorphism and diabetic status on the cardiovascular event-free survival. In patients without pre-existing diabetes, 5-year cardiovascular event-free survival of the GG/AG genotype group was significantly better than that of the AA genotype group (57.2 vs. 32.1%, p = 0.011). Conclusion: The G allele of the HSP70-2 A+1267G polymorphism confers survival advantages in non-diabetic PD patients. The role of HSP in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in renal failure patients needs further investigation.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology.

          Molecular chaperones, including the heat-shock proteins (Hsps), are a ubiquitous feature of cells in which these proteins cope with stress-induced denaturation of other proteins. Hsps have received the most attention in model organisms undergoing experimental stress in the laboratory, and the function of Hsps at the molecular and cellular level is becoming well understood in this context. A complementary focus is now emerging on the Hsps of both model and nonmodel organisms undergoing stress in nature, on the roles of Hsps in the stress physiology of whole multicellular eukaryotes and the tissues and organs they comprise, and on the ecological and evolutionary correlates of variation in Hsps and the genes that encode them. This focus discloses that (a) expression of Hsps can occur in nature, (b) all species have hsp genes but they vary in the patterns of their expression, (c) Hsp expression can be correlated with resistance to stress, and (d) species' thresholds for Hsp expression are correlated with levels of stress that they naturally undergo. These conclusions are now well established and may require little additional confirmation; many significant questions remain unanswered concerning both the mechanisms of Hsp-mediated stress tolerance at the organismal level and the evolutionary mechanisms that have diversified the hsp genes.
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            A malnutrition-inflammation score is correlated with morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

            Malnutrition inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) occurs commonly in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and may correlate with increased morbidity and mortality. An optimal, comprehensive, quantitative system that assesses MICS could be a useful measure of clinical status and may be a predictor of outcome in MHD patients. We therefore attempted to develop and validate such an instrument, comparing it with conventional measures of nutrition and inflammation, as well as prospective hospitalization and mortality. Using components of the conventional Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), a semiquantitative scale with three severity levels, the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS), a fully quantitative scoring system consisting of 7 SGA components, with total score ranging between 7 (normal) and 35 (severely malnourished), was recently developed. To improve the DMS, we added three new elements to the 7 DMS components: body mass index, serum albumin level, and total iron-binding capacity to represent serum transferrin level. This new comprehensive Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) has 10 components, each with four levels of severity, from 0 (normal) to 3 (very severe). The sum of all 10 MIS components ranges from 0 to 30, denoting increasing degree of severity. These scores were compared with anthropometric measurements, near-infrared-measured body fat percentage, laboratory measures that included serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and 12-month prospective hospitalization and mortality rates. Eighty-three outpatients (44 men, 39 women; age, 59 +/- 15 years) on MHD therapy for at least 3 months (43 +/- 33 months) were evaluated at the beginning of this study and followed up for 1 year. The SGA, DMS, and MIS were assessed simultaneously on all patients by a trained physician. Case-mix-adjusted correlation coefficients for the MIS were significant for hospitalization days (r = 0.45; P < 0.001) and frequency of hospitalization (r = 0.46; P < 0.001). Compared with the SGA and DMS, most pertinent correlation coefficients were stronger with the MIS. The MIS, but not the SGA or DMS, correlated significantly with creatinine level, hematocrit, and CRP level. During the 12-month follow-up, 9 patients died and 6 patients left the cohort. The Cox proportional hazard-calculated relative risk for death for each 10-unit increase in the MIS was 10.43 (95% confidence interval, 2.28 to 47.64; P = 0.002). The MIS was superior to its components or different subversions for predicting mortality. The MIS appears to be a comprehensive scoring system with significant associations with prospective hospitalization and mortality, as well as measures of nutrition, inflammation, and anemia in MHD patients. The MIS may be superior to the conventional SGA and the DMS, as well as to individual laboratory values, as a predictor of dialysis outcome and an indicator of MICS.
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              Induction of heat shock proteins for protection against oxidative stress.

              Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been studied for many years and there is now a large body of evidence that demonstrates the role of Hsp upregulation in tissue and cell protection in a wide variety of stress conditions. Oxidative stress is known to be involved in a number of pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and stroke, and even plays a role in natural aging. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the role of Hsps and the heat shock response (HSR) in these pathological conditions and discuss the therapeutic potential of an Hsp therapy for these disorders. However, although an Hsp based therapy appears to be a promising approach for the treatment of diseases that involve oxidative damage, there are some significant hurdles that must be overcome before this approach can be successful. For example, to be effective an Hsp based therapy will need to ensure that the upregulation of Hsps occurs in the right place (i.e. be cell specific), at the right time and to a level and specificity that ensures that all the important binding partners, namely the co-chaperones, are also present at the appropriate levels. It is therefore unlikely that strategies that involve genetic modifications that result in overexpression of specific Hsps will achieve such sophisticated and coordinated effects. Similarly, it is likely that some pharmaceutical inducers of Hsps may be too generic to achieve the desired specific effects on Hsp expression, or may simply fail to reach their target cells due to delivery problems. However, if these difficulties can be overcome, it is clear that an effective Hsp based therapy would be of great benefit to the wide range of depilating conditions in which oxidative stress plays a critical role.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2014
                December 2014
                20 November 2014
                : 128
                : 1-2
                : 153-158
                Affiliations
                Carol and Richard Yu Peritoneal Dialysis Research Centre, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China
                Author notes
                *Dr. Cheuk-Chun Szeto, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, SAR (China), E-Mail ccszeto@cuhk.edu.hk
                Article
                368237 Nephron Clin Pract 2014;128:153-158
                10.1159/000368237
                25412654
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Inflammation, Cardiovascular disease, Renal failure

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