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      Toll-like receptor signalling

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      Nature Reviews Immunology
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity.

          Recognition of pathogens is mediated by a set of germline-encoded receptors that are referred to as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors recognize conserved molecular patterns (pathogen-associated molecular patterns), which are shared by large groups of microorganisms. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as the PRRs in mammals and play an essential role in the recognition of microbial components. The TLRs may also recognize endogenous ligands induced during the inflammatory response. Similar cytoplasmic domains allow TLRs to use the same signaling molecules used by the interleukin 1 receptors (IL-1Rs): these include MyD88, IL-1R--associated protein kinase and tumor necrosis factor receptor--activated factor 6. However, evidence is accumulating that the signaling pathways associated with each TLR are not identical and may, therefore, result in different biological responses.
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            Innate antiviral responses by means of TLR7-mediated recognition of single-stranded RNA.

            Interferons (IFNs) are critical for protection from viral infection, but the pathways linking virus recognition to IFN induction remain poorly understood. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells produce vast amounts of IFN-alpha in response to the wild-type influenza virus. Here, we show that this requires endosomal recognition of influenza genomic RNA and signaling by means of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and MyD88. Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules of nonviral origin also induce TLR7-dependent production of inflammatory cytokines. These results identify ssRNA as a ligand for TLR7 and suggest that cells of the innate immune system sense endosomal ssRNA to detect infection by RNA viruses.
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              Differential Roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in Recognition of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Wall Components

              Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 are implicated in the recognition of various bacterial cell wall components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate in vivo roles of TLR2, we generated TLR2-deficient mice. In contrast to LPS unresponsiveness in TLR4-deficient mice, TLR2-deficient mice responded to LPS to the same extent as wild-type mice. TLR2-deficient macrophages were hyporesponsive to several Gram-positive bacterial cell walls as well as Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan. TLR4-deficient macrophages lacked the response to Gram-positive lipoteichoic acids. These results demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo and TLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Immunology
                Nat Rev Immunol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1474-1733
                1474-1741
                July 2004
                July 2004
                : 4
                : 7
                : 499-511
                Article
                10.1038/nri1391
                15229469
                2abdad50-c489-4639-887b-f817715984ad
                © 2004

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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