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      Cardiac Light Chain Amyloidosis: The Role of Metal Ions in Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage

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          The Fork head transcription factor DAF-16 transduces insulin-like metabolic and longevity signals in C. elegans.

          In mammals, insulin signalling regulates glucose transport together with the expression and activity of various metabolic enzymes. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a related pathway regulates metabolism, development and longevity. Wild-type animals enter the developmentally arrested dauer stage in response to high levels of a secreted pheromone, accumulating large amounts of fat in their intestines and hypodermis. Mutants in DAF-2 (a homologue of the mammalian insulin receptor) and AGE-1 (a homologue of the catalytic subunit of mammalian phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase) arrest development at the dauer stage. Moreover, animals bearing weak or temperature-sensitive mutations in daf-2 and age-1 can develop reproductively, but nevertheless show increased energy storage and longevity. Here we show that null mutations in daf-16 suppress the effects of mutations in daf-2 or age-1; lack of daf-16 bypasses the need for this insulin receptor-like signalling pathway. The principal role of DAF-2/AGE-1 signalling is thus to antagonize DAF-16. daf-16 is widely expressed and encodes three members of the Fork head family of transcription factors. The DAF-2 pathway acts synergistically with the pathway activated by a nematode TGF-beta-type signal, DAF-7, suggesting that DAF-16 cooperates with nematode SMAD proteins in regulating the transcription of key metabolic and developmental control genes. The probable human orthologues of DAF-16, FKHR and AFX, may also act downstream of insulin signalling and cooperate with TGF-beta effectors in mediating metabolic regulation. These genes may be dysregulated in diabetes.
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            Molecular mechanisms of amyloidosis.

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              Definition of organ involvement and treatment response in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL): a consensus opinion from the 10th International Symposium on Amyloid and Amyloidosis, Tours, France, 18-22 April 2004.

              We undertook this study to develop uniformly accepted criteria for the definition of organ involvement and response for patients on treatment protocols for immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis (AL). A consensus panel was convened comprising 13 specialists actively involved in the treatment of patients with amyloidosis. Institutional criteria were submitted from each, and a consensus was developed defining each organ involved and the criteria for response. Specific criteria have been developed with agreed on definitions of organ and hematologic response as a result of discussions at the 10th International Symposium on Amyloid and Amyloidosis held in Tours, France, April 2004. These criteria now form the working definition of involvement and response for the purposes of future data collection and reporting. We report criteria that centers can now use to define organ involvement and uniform response criteria for reporting outcomes in patients with light-chain AL. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
                Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
                Mary Ann Liebert Inc
                1523-0864
                1557-7716
                September 20 2017
                September 20 2017
                : 27
                : 9
                : 567-582
                10.1089/ars.2016.6848
                © 2017

                http://www.liebertpub.com/nv/resources-tools/text-and-data-mining-policy/121/

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