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      Respiratory Failure

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Lung injury, Nitric oxide, inhaled, Mechanical ventilation

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          Abstract

          Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common causes of hypoxemic respiratory failure. Multiple etiologies lead to direct and indirect pulmonary injury that progresses through an acute exudative phase, fibroproliferative phase, and recovery phase. Inflammatory mechanisms are thought to play a predominant role in the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS. Mechanical ventilation with a lower tidal volume and an inspiratory plateau pressure of ≤30 cm H<sub>2</sub>O is one intervention that has demonstrated a reduction in mortality. A clinical trial to determine the role of restrictive versus liberal fluid management is underway. Inhaled nitric oxide has been used to improve oxygenation but has not resulted in any outcome benefit. Glucocorticoids may be beneficial in the fibroproliferative phase of lung injury by suppressing chronic inflammation. Rigorous clinical trials of new and established interventions are required to determine optimum therapy and reduce mortality in ALI/ARDS.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

          In patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome, massive alveolar collapse and cyclic lung reopening and overdistention during mechanical ventilation may perpetuate alveolar injury. We determined whether a ventilatory strategy designed to minimize such lung injuries could reduce not only pulmonary complications but also mortality at 28 days in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. We randomly assigned 53 patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (including 28 described previously), all of whom were receiving identical hemodynamic and general support, to conventional or protective mechanical ventilation. Conventional ventilation was based on the strategy of maintaining the lowest positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) for acceptable oxygenation, with a tidal volume of 12 ml per kilogram of body weight and normal arterial carbon dioxide levels (35 to 38 mm Hg). Protective ventilation involved end-expiratory pressures above the lower inflection point on the static pressure-volume curve, a tidal volume of less than 6 ml per kilogram, driving pressures of less than 20 cm of water above the PEEP value, permissive hypercapnia, and preferential use of pressure-limited ventilatory modes. After 28 days, 11 of 29 patients (38 percent) in the protective-ventilation group had died, as compared with 17 of 24 (71 percent) in the conventional-ventilation group (P<0.001). The rates of weaning from mechanical ventilation were 66 percent in the protective-ventilation group and 29 percent in the conventional-ventilation group (P=0.005): the rates of clinical barotrauma were 7 percent and 42 percent, respectively (P=0.02), despite the use of higher PEEP and mean airway pressures in the protective-ventilation group. The difference in survival to hospital discharge was not significant; 13 of 29 patients (45 percent) in the protective-ventilation group died in the hospital, as compared with 17 of 24 in the conventional-ventilation group (71 percent, P=0.37). As compared with conventional ventilation, the protective strategy was associated with improved survival at 28 days, a higher rate of weaning from mechanical ventilation, and a lower rate of barotrauma in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Protective ventilation was not associated with a higher rate of survival to hospital discharge.
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            Evaluation of a ventilation strategy to prevent barotrauma in patients at high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pressure- and Volume-Limited Ventilation Strategy Group.

            A strategy of mechanical ventilation that limits airway pressure and tidal volume while permitting hypercapnia has been recommended for patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. The goal is to reduce lung injury due to overdistention. However, the efficacy of this approach has not been established. Within 24 hours of intubation, patients at high risk for the acute respiratory distress syndrome were randomly assigned to either pressure- and volume-limited ventilation (limited-ventilation group), with the peak inspiratory pressure maintained at 30 cm of water or less and the tidal volume at 8 ml per kilogram of body weight or less, or to conventional ventilation (control group), with the peak inspiratory pressure allowed to rise as high as 50 cm of water and the tidal volume at 10 to 15 ml per kilogram. All other ventilatory variables were similar in the two groups. A total of 120 patients with similar clinical features underwent randomization (60 in each group). The patients in the limited-ventilation and control groups were exposed to different mean (+/-SD) tidal volumes (7.2+/-0.8 vs. 10.8+/-1.0 ml per kilogram, respectively; P 50 mm Hg) was more common (52 percent vs. 28 percent, P=0.009), more marked (54.4+/-18.8 vs. 45.7+/-9.8 mm Hg, P=0.002), and more prolonged (146+/-265 vs. 25+/-22 hours, P=0.017) than in the control group. The incidence of barotrauma, the highest multiple-organ-dysfunction score, and the number of episodes of organ failure were similar in the two groups; however, the numbers of patients who required paralytic agents (23 vs. 13, P=0.05) and dialysis for renal failure (13 vs. 5, P= 0.04) were greater in the limited-ventilation group than in the control group. In patients at high risk for the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a strategy of mechanical ventilation that limits peak inspiratory pressure and tidal volume does not appear to reduce mortality and may increase morbidity.
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              Effects of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7371-9
                978-3-318-00812-8
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2002
                2002
                27 February 2002
                : 20
                : 3
                : 235-238
                Affiliations
                Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA
                Article
                47014 Blood Purif 2002;20:235–238
                10.1159/000047014
                12688267
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 18, Pages: 4
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/47014
                Categories
                Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on CRRT

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