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      First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae)

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          Abstract

          The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the fungus coated on test paper at a concentration of 3.3 × 10 6 conidia cm -2 reduced the daily survival of both mosquito species (HR = 3.14, p < 0.001), with higher risk of dying in An. gambiae s.s relative to An. arabiensis (HR = 1.38, p < 0.001). Fungal sporulation was observed in >95% of mosquito cadavers in the treatment groups. The results indicate that M. anisopliae IP 46 has the potential to be a bio-control agent for African malaria vector species, and is a suitable candidate for further research and development.

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          Most cited references 15

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          An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes.

          Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae, Africa's main malaria vector, was achieved in rural African village houses. An entomological inoculation rate model suggests that implementation of this vector control method, even at the observed moderate coverage during a field study in Tanzania, would significantly reduce malaria transmission intensity.
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            Fungal pathogen reduces potential for malaria transmission.

            Using a rodent malaria model, we found that exposure to surfaces treated with fungal entomopathogens following an infectious blood meal reduced the number of mosquitoes able to transmit malaria by a factor of about 80. Fungal infection, achieved through contact with both solid surfaces and netting for durations well within the typical post-feed resting periods, was sufficient to cause >90% mortality. Daily mortality rates escalated dramatically around the time of sporozoite maturation, and infected mosquitoes showed reduced propensity to blood feed. Residual sprays of fungal biopesticides might replace or supplement chemical insecticides for malaria control, particularly in areas of high insecticide resistance.
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              Can fungal biopesticides control malaria?

              Recent research has raised the prospect of using insect fungal pathogens for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. In the past, microbial control of insect pests in both medical and agricultural sectors has generally had limited success. We propose that it might now be possible to produce a cheap, safe and green tool for the control of malaria, which, in contrast to most chemical insecticides, will not eventually be rendered useless by evolution of resistance. Realizing this potential will require lateral thinking by biologists, technologists and development agencies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central
                1756-3305
                2009
                1 December 2009
                : 2
                : 59
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biomedical and Environmental Group, Ifakara Health Institute, PO Box 53, Off Mlabani Passage, Ifakara, Tanzania
                [2 ]Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research Centre, PO Box 8031, 6700 EH, Wageningen, the Netherlands
                [3 ]Pest Management Center, Sokoine University of Agriculture, PO Box 3110, Morogoro, Tanzania
                [4 ]Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, G12 8TA, Glasgow, UK
                [5 ]Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, CP 131, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO, Brasil
                [6 ]Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam, PO Box 35064, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
                [7 ]Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK
                Article
                1756-3305-2-59
                10.1186/1756-3305-2-59
                2791098
                19951426
                Copyright ©2009 Mnyone et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Short Report

                Parasitology

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