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      Single‐trial EEG‐informed fMRI analysis of emotional decision problems in hot executive function

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          Executive function refers to conscious control in psychological process which relates to thinking and action. Emotional decision is a part of hot executive function and contains emotion and logic elements. As a kind of important social adaptation ability, more and more attention has been paid in recent years.


          Gambling task can be well performed in the study of emotional decision. As fMRI researches focused on gambling task show not completely consistent brain activation regions, this study adopted EEGfMRI fusion technology to reveal brain neural activity related with feedback stimuli.


          In this study, an EEG‐informed fMRI analysis was applied to process simultaneous EEGfMRI data. First, relative power‐spectrum analysis and K‐means clustering method were performed separately to extract EEGfMRI features. Then, Generalized linear models were structured using fMRI data and using different EEG features as regressors.


          The results showed that in the win versus loss stimuli, the activated regions almost covered the caudate, the ventral striatum ( VS), the orbital frontal cortex ( OFC), and the cingulate. Wide activation areas associated with reward and punishment were revealed by the EEGfMRI integration analysis than the conventional fMRI results, such as the posterior cingulate and the OFC. The VS and the medial prefrontal cortex ( mPFC) were found when EEG power features were performed as regressors of GLM compared with results entering the amplitudes of feedback‐related negativity ( FRN) as regressors. Furthermore, the brain region activation intensity was the strongest when theta‐band power was used as a regressor compared with the other two fusion results.


          The EEG‐based fMRI analysis can more accurately depict the whole‐brain activation map and analyze emotional decision problems.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making.

          The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that decision-making is a process that depends on emotion. Studies have shown that damage of the ventromedial prefrontal (VMF) cortex precludes the ability to use somatic (emotional) signals that are necessary for guiding decisions in the advantageous direction. However, given the role of the amygdala in emotional processing, we asked whether amygdala damage also would interfere with decision-making. Furthermore, we asked whether there might be a difference between the roles that the amygdala and VMF cortex play in decision-making. To address these two questions, we studied a group of patients with bilateral amygdala, but not VMF, damage and a group of patients with bilateral VMF, but not amygdala, damage. We used the "gambling task" to measure decision-making performance and electrodermal activity (skin conductance responses, SCR) as an index of somatic state activation. All patients, those with amygdala damage as well as those with VMF damage, were (1) impaired on the gambling task and (2) unable to develop anticipatory SCRs while they pondered risky choices. However, VMF patients were able to generate SCRs when they received a reward or a punishment (play money), whereas amygdala patients failed to do so. In a Pavlovian conditioning experiment the VMF patients acquired a conditioned SCR to visual stimuli paired with an aversive loud sound, whereas amygdala patients failed to do so. The results suggest that amygdala damage is associated with impairment in decision-making and that the roles played by the amygdala and VMF in decision-making are different.
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            A method to standardize a reference of scalp EEG recordings to a point at infinity.

             J. Yao (2001)
            The effect of an active reference in EEG recording is one of the oldest technical problems in EEG practice. In this paper, a method is proposed to approximately standardize the reference of scalp EEG recordings to a point at infinity. This method is based on the fact that the use of scalp potentials to determine the neural electrical activities or their equivalent sources does not depend on the reference, so we may approximately reconstruct the equivalent sources from scalp EEG recordings with a scalp point or average reference. Then the potentials referenced at infinity are approximately reconstructed from the equivalent sources. As a point at infinity is far from all the possible neural sources, this method may be considered as a reference electrode standardization technique (REST). The simulation studies performed with assumed neural sources included effects of electrode number, volume conductor model and noise on the performance of REST, and the significance of REST in EEG temporal analysis. The results showed that REST is potentially very effective for the most important superficial cortical region and the standardization could be especially important in recovering the temporal information of EEG recordings.
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              Modulation of caudate activity by action contingency.

              Research has increasingly implicated the striatum in the processing of reward-related information in both animals and humans. However, it is unclear whether human striatal activation is driven solely by the hedonic properties of rewards or whether such activation is reliant on other factors, such as anticipation of upcoming reward or performance of an action to earn a reward. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate hemodynamic responses to monetary rewards and punishments in three experiments that made use of an oddball paradigm. We presented reward and punishment displays randomly in time, following an anticipatory cue, or following a button press response. Robust and differential activation of the caudate nucleus occurred only when a perception of contingency existed between the button press response and the outcome. This finding suggests that the caudate is involved in reinforcement of action potentially leading to reward, rather than in processing reward per se.

                Author and article information

                Brain Behav
                Brain Behav
                Brain and Behavior
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                29 May 2017
                July 2017
                : 7
                : 7 ( doiID: 10.1002/brb3.2017.7.issue-7 )
                [ 1 ] School of Information Science and Engineering Changzhou University Changzhou Jiangsu China
                [ 2 ] Changzhou Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Technology Changzhou Jiangsu China
                [ 3 ] School of Life Science and Technology University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Chengdu Sichuan China
                [ 4 ] Changzhou NO.1 People's Hospital affiliated with Suzhou University Changzhou Jiangsu China
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Ling Zou, School of Information Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, China.

                Email: zouling@


                These authors contribute equally to this study

                © 2017 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, Pages: 9, Words: 6005
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 61201096
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                July 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.1.4 mode:remove_FC converted:19.07.2017


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