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      Association of Circulating ANGPTL8 Levels With Renal Dysfunction: A Case-Control Study

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          Abstract

          Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) was found to regulate lipid metabolism. Previous studies suggested that serum ANGPTL8 levels increased in patients with diabetes, especially in diabetic patients with albuminuria. This study aimed to investigate the association between circulating levels of ANGPTL8 and kidney function in the general population.

          Methods: The subjects were patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60/min/1.73 m 2] from Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal study (the REACTION study). Each case was matched by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) with one control whose eGFR was ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m 2. The case and control groups were compared using a paired t-test. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of renal dysfunction (RD).

          Results: Among 135 case-control pairs, circulating ANGPTL8 levels were elevated in patients with RD compared to control subjects [799.96 (410.12-1086.44) vs. 609.58 (365.13-740.06) pg/ml, p < 0.05]. Partial correlations showed that ANGPTL8 levels were negatively correlated with eGFR (r = −0.26, p < 0.05). Multivariable-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis showed that elevated ANGPTL8 levels were associated with an increased risk of RD (OR in quartile 4 vs. 1, 3.80; 95% CI, 1.71-8.41). Interestingly, the association between ANGPTL8 levels and RD was consistent with the overall findings in both nondiabetic individuals (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.91) and diabetic patients (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.13-6.49) in the subgroup analyses. Furthermore, the estimates for this association were also significant in females (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.33-3.37), individuals aged > 60 years (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.16-2.07), individuals with a BMI <24 (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.16-2.39), and individuals without hyperlipidaemia (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.16-2.23) (all p-values <0.05).

          Conclusion: Elevated circulating ANGPTL8 levels were associated with increased risk of RD in the general population, especially among females, individuals aged > 60 years, individuals with a BMI < 24, individuals without diabetes mellitus, individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), and individuals without hyperlipidaemia. This finding implies that ANGPTL8 may play a role in the pathological process of RD.

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          Inflammageing: chronic inflammation in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and frailty

          Most older individuals develop inflammageing, a condition characterized by elevated levels of blood inflammatory markers that carries high susceptibility to chronic morbidity, disability, frailty, and premature death. Potential mechanisms of inflammageing include genetic susceptibility, central obesity, increased gut permeability, changes to microbiota composition, cellular senescence, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, oxidative stress caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, immune cell dysregulation, and chronic infections. Inflammageing is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and clinical trials suggest that this association is causal. Inflammageing is also a risk factor for chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, depression, dementia, and sarcopenia, but whether modulating inflammation beneficially affects the clinical course of non-CVD health problems is controversial. This uncertainty is an important issue to address because older patients with CVD are often affected by multimorbidity and frailty - which affect clinical manifestations, prognosis, and response to treatment - and are associated with inflammation by mechanisms similar to those in CVD. The hypothesis that inflammation affects CVD, multimorbidity, and frailty by inhibiting growth factors, increasing catabolism, and interfering with homeostatic signalling is supported by mechanistic studies but requires confirmation in humans. Whether early modulation of inflammageing prevents or delays the onset of cardiovascular frailty should be tested in clinical trials.
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            Chronic Kidney Disease.

            The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence. Many people are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms such as lethargy, itch, or loss of appetite. Diagnosis is commonly made after chance findings from screening tests (urinary dipstick or blood tests), or when symptoms become severe. The best available indicator of overall kidney function is GFR, which is measured either via exogenous markers (eg, DTPA, iohexol), or estimated using equations. Presence of proteinuria is associated with increased risk of progression of CKD and death. Kidney biopsy samples can show definitive evidence of CKD, through common changes such as glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Complications include anaemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidney; reduced red blood cell survival and iron deficiency; and mineral bone disease caused by disturbed vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate metabolism. People with CKD are five to ten times more likely to die prematurely than they are to progress to end stage kidney disease. This increased risk of death rises exponentially as kidney function worsens and is largely attributable to death from cardiovascular disease, although cancer incidence and mortality are also increased. Health-related quality of life is substantially lower for people with CKD than for the general population, and falls as GFR declines. Interventions targeting specific symptoms, or aimed at supporting educational or lifestyle considerations, make a positive difference to people living with CKD. Inequity in access to services for this disease disproportionally affects disadvantaged populations, and health service provision to incentivise early intervention over provision of care only for advanced CKD is still evolving in many countries.
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              Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives.

              Chronic kidney disease is defined as a reduced glomerular filtration rate, increased urinary albumin excretion, or both, and is an increasing public health issue. Prevalence is estimated to be 8-16% worldwide. Complications include increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, kidney-disease progression, acute kidney injury, cognitive decline, anaemia, mineral and bone disorders, and fractures. Worldwide, diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, but in some regions other causes, such as herbal and environmental toxins, are more common. The poorest populations are at the highest risk. Screening and intervention can prevent chronic kidney disease, and where management strategies have been implemented the incidence of end-stage kidney disease has been reduced. Awareness of the disorder, however, remains low in many communities and among many physicians. Strategies to reduce burden and costs related to chronic kidney disease need to be included in national programmes for non-communicable diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Public Health
                Front Public Health
                Front. Public Health
                Frontiers in Public Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2565
                07 September 2021
                2021
                : 9
                : 710504
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan, China
                [2] 2Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases , Wuhan, China
                [3] 3Computer Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Kevin Lu, University of South Carolina, United States

                Reviewed by: Shanshan Lin, University of Technology Sydney, Australia; Qifu Li, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China

                *Correspondence: Xuefeng Yu xfyu188@ 123456163.com

                This article was submitted to Aging and Public Health, a section of the journal Frontiers in Public Health

                Article
                10.3389/fpubh.2021.710504
                8452901
                2ae6adbc-0a0a-4256-977b-e8822aefc78e
                Copyright © 2021 Meng, Zou, Li, Yu, Huang, Zhang, Li and Yu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 16 May 2021
                : 09 August 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 37, Pages: 7, Words: 4761
                Categories
                Public Health
                Original Research

                angptl8,egfr,renal dysfunction,creatinine,chronic kidney disease,case-control study

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