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      ACE Inhibition Preserves Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in the Glomerular Basement Membrane of Rats with Established Adriamycin Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          The gradual onset of the antiproteinuric effects of ACE inhibition suggests that structural effects on the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) may be involved in their renoprotective action. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of lisinopril (5 mg/kg/24 h) on proteinuria, focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) and glomerular heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan (HSPG) GBM staining in rats with established Adriamycin nephrosis. Treatment was started 6 weeks after disease induction. As expected, lisinopril reduced blood pressure, proteinuria and the FGS score. In control rats, Adriamycin nephrosis was associated with significantly impaired GBM staining for both HSPG core protein (assessed from BL-31 staining) and HS staining (assessed from JM-403 staining) 12 weeks after disease induction. In rats treated with lisinopril (5 mg/kg/24 h) GBM stianing was significantly better preserved for HS as well as for HSPG core protein. These data suggest that structural effects on the GBM, improving glomerular permselectivity, may be involved in the renoprotective effects of ACE inhibition in proteinuria-induced renal damage.

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          Hydroxyl radicals depolymerize glomerular heparan sulfate in vitro and in experimental nephrotic syndrome.

          Heparan sulfate, the polysaccharide side chain of heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is important for the permselective properties of the glomerular basement membrane. In this report, we show a role for hydroxyl radicals in heparan sulfate degradation and an enhanced glomerular basement membrane permeability. First, in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, exposure of coated heparan sulfate (proteoglycan) to reactive oxygen species resulted in a +/-50% decrease of binding of a monoclonal antibody against heparan sulfate, whereas binding of an antibody against the core protein remained unaltered. Second, on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of heparan sulfate exposed to radicals was reduced which indicates depolymerization. Both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis, hydroxyl radicals are instrumental for heparan sulfate degradation as shown by the addition of various radical scavengers. Third, in an experimental model for human nephrotic syndrome (Adriamycin nephropathy in rats), glomerular basement membrane staining of two recently described anti-heparan sulfate antibodies (JM403 and KJ865) was reduced by 24 and 43%. Treatment of Adriamycin-exposed rats with the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethylthiourea both reduced albuminuria by 37% (p < 0.01) and partly prevented loss of heparan sulfate staining by 53% (JM403) and 39% (KJ865) (p < 0.03). In contrast to the heparan sulfate side chains, the core protein expression and the extent of glycanation did not change in Adriamycin nephropathy. We conclude that glomerular basement membrane heparan sulfate is susceptible to depolymerization by hydroxyl radicals leading to loss of glomerular basement membrane integrity and albuminuria.
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            Presence ofN-Unsubstituted Glucosamine Units in Native Heparan Sulfate Revealed by a Monoclonal Antibody

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              EXN
              Nephron Exp Nephrol
              10.1159/issn.1660-2129
              Cardiorenal Medicine
              S. Karger AG
              1660-2129
              2001
              October 2000
              06 October 2000
              : 9
              : 1
              : 21-27
              Affiliations
              aDivision of Nephrology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration, and Departments of bClinical Pharmacology and cPathology, University Hospital Groningen, and dDivision of Nephrology, University Hospital St. Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
              Article
              20704 Exp Nephrol 2001;9:21–27
              10.1159/000020704
              11053977
              © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 4, References: 20, Pages: 7
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/20704
              Categories
              Original Paper

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