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      Transrectal guidance of the ovaries reduces operative time during bovine laparoscopic ovariectomy


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          The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of transrectal guidance of the ovaries by an assistant on operative time during bovine laparoscopic ovariectomy. Twenty four clinically healthy Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into two groups. In the transrectal guidance group, an assistant grasped the ovaries via the transrectal route and pulled them to a position where they could be visualized with a camera. On the other hand, the control group was operated without guidance. The time required to remove both ovaries in the guidance group was shorter than that in the control group ( P<0.01). We concluded that laparoscopic ovariectomy with transrectal guidance of the ovaries can substantially shorten operative time, thereby greatly contributing to animal welfare and to reducing the burden on the operator.

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          Most cited references15

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          Laparoscopic ovariectomy in standing cows.

          The main objective of this study was to evaluate laparoscopic ovariectomy and to develop an optimal surgical technique for this procedure in standing cattle. Eight cows underwent laparoscopic ovariectomy. In two cows, a bilateral flank approach was used and in six cows, both ovaries were removed via a left flank approach. An important prerequisite for ensuring sufficient intrabdominal space for instrumentation, optimal endoscopic orientation and easy access to the ovaries and uterus was withholding feed for at least 36 h prior to surgery. The cows were sedated with xylazine and the portal sites infiltrated with lidocaine. The portal for the laparoscope was at the ventral angle of the left paralumbar fossa, approximately 10 cm cranioventral to the tuber coxae. The instruments were inserted through two portals approximately 20 cm and 30 cm ventral to the tuber coxae. After abdominal insufflation with carbon dioxide, the left ovary was grasped and local anesthetic was injected into the mesovarium and mesosalpinx. The mesovarium was transected using bipolar cauterization and the ovary removed through an extended instrument portal. The right ovary was removed in the same way. The incisions were closed with single interrupted absorbable sutures in the musculature and single interrupted non-absorbable sutures in the skin. The procedure lasted 120-150 min. Bilateral laparoscopic ovariectomy via left flank approach in standing cows is feasible. This procedure involves special instrumentation, but is minimally invasive and allows optimal visualization of the ovaries and uterus.
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            Cost-effectiveness of laparoscopy in children.

            Laparoscopy may offer fast recovery and improved cosmesis, but its cost has been perceived as excessive. To analyze the total hospital costs of laparoscopy vs open surgery. Retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating all cases performed in a 36-month period (September 1995 to August 1998). Cases were evaluated for operative time, itemized cost of supplies, and length of hospitalization. Operations performed by pediatric surgeons in a tertiary care children's hospital. Consecutive children undergoing laparoscopic or open appendectomies, cholecystectomies, fundoplications, and splenectomies. Patients were not randomized to laparoscopy, or open surgery. Laparoscopic procedures performed with a core set of reusable equipment and a limited number of disposable instruments. Cost surplus of laparoscopy was evaluated, and compared with savings associated with decreased hospital stay, to obtain cost-effectiveness of laparoscopy per procedure. There were 26 laparoscopic and 359 open appendectomies; 33 laparoscopic and 3 open cholecystectomies; 16 laparoscopic and 18 open fundoplications; and 16 laparoscopic and 7 open splenectomies. Excess operating costs per procedure were $442.00 for appendectomy, $634.60 for fundoplication, $847.50 for cholecystectomy, and $1551.30 for splenectomy. Hospital stay was decreased for all laparoscopies, resulting in an overall savings per laparoscopic procedure of $2369.90 for appendectomy, $5390.90 for fundoplication, $1161.00 for cholecystectomy, and $858.90 for splenectomy. Laparoscopy is cost-effective, particularly for fundoplication, appendectomy, and cholecystectomy. Detailing the costs of supplies, operating time, and length of stay allows interinstitutional comparison and critical cost-analysis of laparoscopy. With a more selective use of reusable instruments and further shortening of operative time, the global savings of laparoscopy may increase.
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              Heifer ovariectomy using the Willis spay instrument: Technique, morbidity and mortality.

              Two field trials were conducted to determine the morbidity and mortality rates in heifers ovariectomized with a Willis spay instrument.Trial A used 384 Hereford and Hereford cross, auction source, heifers, weighing an average of 230 kg. In trial B, 138 auction and ranch source heifers of mixed breeding and weighing an average of 285 kg were used. All heifers were ovariectomized per vaginam, with the ovaries left in the abdomen. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered and heifers were observed at pasture for the next 150 days.The morbidity and mortality rates for heifers in trial A were 0.5% and 0.26%, respectively. In trial B, there was no morbidity or mortality.These trials indicate that the technique described is a low risk, expedient method of ovariectomizing heifers.

                Author and article information

                J Vet Med Sci
                J. Vet. Med. Sci
                The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
                The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science
                13 October 2017
                December 2017
                : 79
                : 12
                : 2019-2022
                [1) ]School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
                [2) ]Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, 1–1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki-shi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan
                [3) ]Clinic for Ruminants, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern 3001, Switzerland
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Sato, R.: r-sato@ 123456azabu-u.ac.jp
                ©2017 The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License. (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ )

                : 18 August 2017
                : 03 October 2017

                cow, laparoscopy, ovariectomy, transrectal


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