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      Cilostazol, an Inhibitor of Type 3 Phosphodiesterase, Produces Endothelium-Independent Vasodilation in Pressurized Rabbit Cerebral Penetrating Arterioles

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          We investigated the effects of cilostazol, a potent inhibitor of cGMP-inhibited cAMP phosphodiesterase, on mechanical activity of isolated pressurized rabbit cerebral penetrating arterioles with special reference to the function of the endothelium. Both cilostazol and milrinone, another inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase, produced vasodilation of the cerebral penetrating arterioles in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase or nitric oxide synthase, or chemical denudation of the endothelial cells caused no significant effect on the cilostazol-mediated vasodilation of the cerebral arterioles. A selective large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor, iberiotoxin, and a selective protein kinase A inhibitor, H-89, caused no significant effect on the cilostazol-mediated vasodilation. In the cerebral arterioles, low concentration (10<sup>–6</sup> M) of cilostazol or milrinone caused a significant shift of the dose-vasodilatory response curve for adenosine to the left. These findings suggest that cilostazol produces vasodilation independent of the presence of the endothelium or activation of endogenous vasodilative prostaglandins, nitric oxide, calcium-activated potassium channel and protein kinase A. In conclusion, the vasodilator action of cilostazol may, in part, contribute to the beneficial effect of preventing lacunar cerebral infarction in patients with functional damage of the endothelium in cerebral penetrating arterioles.

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          Most cited references 12

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          EDHF: bringing the concepts together

          Endothelial cells synthesize and release vasoactive mediators in response to various neurohumoural substances (e.g. bradykinin or acetylcholine) and physical stimuli (e.g. cyclic stretch or fluid shear stress). The best-characterized endothelium-derived relaxing factors are nitric oxide and prostacyclin. However, an additional relaxant pathway associated with smooth muscle hyperpolarization also exists. This hyperpolarization was originally attributed to the release of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) that diffuses to and activates smooth muscle K(+) channels. More recent evidence suggests that endothelial cell receptor activation by these neurohumoural substances opens endothelial cell K(+) channels. Several mechanisms have been proposed to link this pivotal step to the subsequent smooth muscle hyperpolarization. The main concepts are considered in detail in this review.
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            Cilostazol stroke prevention study: A placebo-controlled double-blind trial for secondary prevention of cerebral infarction.

             F Gotoh,  H Tohgi,  S Hirai (2015)
            Cilostazol, an antiplatelet drug that increases the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels in platelets via inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, has been used in chronic arterial occlusive disease. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cilostazol on the recurrence of cerebral infarction using a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial method. Patients who suffered from cerebral infarction at 1 to 6 months before the trial were enrolled between April 1992 and March 1996. Oral administration of cilostazol (100 mg twice daily) or placebo was randomly assigned to the patients and continued until February 1997. The primary endpoint was the recurrence of cerebral infarction. In total, 1,095 patients were enrolled. An analysis based on 1,052 eligible patients (526 given cilostazol and 526 given placebo) showed that the cilostazol treatment achieved a significant relative-risk reduction (41.7%; confidence interval [CI], 9.2% to 62.5%) in the recurrence of cerebral infarction as compared with the placebo treatment (P=.0150). Intention-to-treat analysis of 1,067 patients also showed a significant relative-risk reduction (42.3%; CI, 10.3% to 62.9%, P=.0127). No clinically significant adverse drug reactions of cilostazol were encountered. Long-term administration of cilostazol was effective and safe in the secondary prevention of cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2000 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Comparison of the effects of cilostazol and milrinone on intracellular cAMP levels and cellular function in platelets and cardiac cells.

              Cilostazol is a potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 3 (PDE3) inhibitor that was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Its efficacy is presumed to be due to its vasodilatory and platelet activation inhibitory activities. Compared with those treated with placebo, patients treated with cilostazol showed a minimal increase in cardiac adverse events. Because of its PDE3 inhibitory activity, however, the possibility that cilostazol exerts positive cardiac inotropic effects is a safety concern. Therefore we compared the effects of cilostazol with those of milrinone, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, on intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in platelets, cardiac ventricular myocytes, and coronary smooth muscle cells. We also compared the corresponding functional changes in these cells. Cilostazol and milrinone both caused a concentration-dependent increase in the cAMP level in rabbit and human platelets with similar potency. Furthermore, cilostazol and milrinone were equally effective in inhibiting human platelet aggregation with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.9 and 2 microM, respectively. In rabbit ventricular myocytes, however, cilostazol elevated cAMP levels to a significantly lesser extent (p < 0.05 vs. milrinone). By using isolated rabbit hearts with a Langendorff preparation, we showed that milrinone is a very potent cardiotonic agent; it concentration-dependently increased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility. Cilostazol was less effective in increasing LVDP and contractility (p < 0.05 vs. milrinone), which is consistent with the cardiac cAMP levels. The cardiac effect of OPC-13015, a metabolite of cilostazol with about sevenfold higher PDE3 inhibition, was similar to cilostazol. Whereas milrinone concentration-dependently increased cAMP in rabbit coronary smooth muscle cells, cilostazol did not have such an effect. However, both compounds increased coronary flow equally in rabbit hearts. Our results show that although cilostazol and milrinone both inhibit PDE3, cilostazol preferentially acts on vascular elements (platelets and flow). This unique profile of cilostazol is consistent with its beneficial and safe clinical outcomes in patients with intermittent claudication.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2005
                21 December 2005
                : 43
                : 1
                : 86-94
                Department of Physiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan
                89723 J Vasc Res 2006;43:86–94
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, References: 25, Pages: 9
                Research Paper


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