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      Shiga Toxin-1 Regulation of Cytokine Production by Human Glomerular Epithelial Cells

      , ,

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Shiga toxin, Glomerular epithelial cells, Cytokine, Lipopolysaccharide

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Inflammatory cytokines may enhance renal injury in post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (Stx HUS) by enhancing the cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxins (Stx). The sources of inflammatory cytokines in Stx HUS are unclear. Since Stx-1 potently inhibits protein synthesis by glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) and increases cytokine release by renal epithelial cells, we examined Stx-1 regulation of cytokine production by human GEC. Methods: Stx-1 (and cycloheximide (CHX), another protein synthesis inhibitor) cytotoxicity, protein synthesis inhibition, and effect on interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release and mRNA levels were determined. Results: Stx-1 alone had a modest stimulatory effect on inflammatory cytokine production by GEC that occurred at toxin concentrations ranging from minimal to 50% inhibition of protein synthesis. CHX, at concentrations that produced similar inhibition of protein synthesis, increased IL-1, IL-6, and TNF protein release and mRNA accumulation, but in a different time- and dose-dependent pattern than Stx. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not change IL-1, but stimulated IL-6 and TNF production. LPS and Stx-1 combined stimulated production of all three cytokines to a greater extent than either toxin alone. Conclusion: These data indicate that: (1) Stx-1 alone modestly stimulates GEC inflammatory cytokine production; (2) LPS and Stx-1 combined can potently enhance GEC cytokine release, and (3) this action of Stx-1 may relate in part to inhibition of protein synthesis but cannot be fully attributed to this effect.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxin-1 on human proximal tubule cells.

          Cytolytic Shiga toxins (Stx) are believed to be largely responsible for renal damage in post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (D + HUS). Despite the general belief that endothelial cells are the primary target of Stx, there is evidence that proximal tubules may be a site of toxin action. We hypothesized that cultured proximal tubular cells are sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of Stx. Cultured human proximal tubular cells were exposed to Stx-1 in the presence and absence of a variety of inflammatory factors likely to be elevated in the kidney or serum of patients with D + HUS. Cell survival, protein synthesis, total cell levels and synthesis of Stx receptors (GB3), and Stx binding were measured. Proximal tubules were extremely sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of Stx-1 with an LD50 at least equal to, if not less than, that seen with Vero cells. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and butyrate (but not tumor necrosis factor or interleukin-6) up-regulated proximal tubule sensitivity to Stx-1. IL-1 increased Stx-1 binding, but did not alter total cell levels or synthesis of GB3, the glycosphingolipid receptor for Stx-1. In contrast, LPS and butyrate, despite increasing Stx-1 sensitivity, had no effect on Stx-1 binding. These studies indicate that proximal tubules are exquisitely sensitive to Stx-1 cytotoxicity and that inflammatory factors can increase toxin responsiveness through a variety of mechanisms. It is suggested that proximal tubules may be an important early target of Stx-1 action in D + HUS.
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            • Record: found
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            Shiga toxin-1 regulation of cytokine production by human proximal tubule cells.

            Interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels are elevated in kidneys of patients with post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) and may contribute to renal dysfunction. The renal cellular sources of these inflammatory cytokines in D+HUS are largely unknown, however, the proximal tubule has emerged as a potentially important candidate. Since Shiga toxin-1 (Stx-1) has been implicated in the genesis of D+HUS, we examined the effect of Stx-1 on cytokine production by human proximal tubule cells.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              2001
              2001
              25 April 2001
              : 88
              : 1
              : 14-23
              Affiliations
              University of Utah School of Medicine and Salt Lake Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
              Article
              45953 Nephron 2001;88:14–23
              10.1159/000045953
              11340345
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 4, References: 38, Pages: 10
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45953
              Categories
              Original Paper

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