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      Emerging and Novel Therapies for Keloids : A compendious review


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          Keloids are abnormal fibroproliferative scars with aggressive dermal growth expanding beyond the borders of the original injury. Different therapeutic modalities, such as corticosteroids, surgical excision, topical silicone gel sheeting, laser therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy, have been used to treat keloids; however, none of these modalities has proven completely effective. Recently, researchers have devised several promising anti-keloid therapies including anti-hypertensive pharmaceuticals, calcineurin inhibitors, electrical stimulation, mesenchymal stem cell therapy, microneedle physical contact and ribonucleic acid-based therapies. The present review summarises emerging and novel treatments for keloids. PubMed ® (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA), EMBASE (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands) and Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA) were searched for relevant literature published between January 1987 to June 2020. A total of 118 articles were included in this review. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying keloid scarring pathogenesis would open further avenues for developing innovative treatments.

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          Doxorubicin: an update on anticancer molecular action, toxicity and novel drug delivery systems.

          The frontline drug doxorubicin has been used for treating cancer for over 30 years. While providing a cure in select cases, doxorubicin causes toxicity to most major organs, especially life-threatening cardiotoxicity, which forces the treatment to become dose-limiting. Doxorubicin is known to bind to DNA-associated enzymes, intercalate with DNA base pairs, and target multiple molecular targets to produce a range of cytotoxic effects. For instance, it causes the activation of various molecular signals from AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase inducing apoptosis) to influence the Bcl-2/Bax apoptosis pathway. By altering the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, downstream activation of different caspases can occur resulting in apoptosis. Doxorubicin also induces apoptosis and necrosis in healthy tissue causing toxicity in the brain, liver, kidney and heart. Over the years, many studies have been conducted to devise a drug delivery system that would eliminate these adverse affects including liposomes, hydrogel and nanoparticulate systems, and we highlight the pros and cons of these drug delivery systems. Overall the future for the continued use of doxorubicin clinically against cancer looks set to be prolonged, provided certain enhancements as listed above are made to its chemistry, delivery and toxicity. Increased efficacy depends on these three aims being met satisfactorily as discussed in turn in this review. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
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            Doxorubicin pathways: pharmacodynamics and adverse effects.

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              Microneedles: A smart approach and increasing potential for transdermal drug delivery system


                Author and article information

                Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
                Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
                Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
                Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine & Health Sciences
                February 2021
                15 March 2021
                : 21
                : 1
                : e22-e33
                Skin Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author’s E-mail: memaryani@ 123456gmail.com
                © Copyright 2021, Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, All Rights Reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                : 20 May 2020
                : 29 June 2020
                : 27 July 2020
                : 13 August 2020

                keloid, treatment, fibroblast, scar, dermatology


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