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      Effect of Epidermal Growth Factor on the Developing Rat Renal Papilla

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          Abstract

          Background: Apoptosis plays an important role in the morphogenesis of the renal papilla. During kidney development, ATL is derived from the TAL in the inner medulla by apoptotic deletion of a fraction of TAL cells and the transformation of the remaining TAL cells. EGF is an important regulator of apoptosis in the kidney. Hypothesis: Exogenously administered EGF in postnatal rat affects renal papilla growth with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the loop of Henle. Methods: Rat pups received subcutaneous injections of EGF (0.3 µg/g body weight) or saline four times a day from after birth. Rats were sacrificed and the kidneys were preserved for immunohistochemistry on day 4 and day 7. The TAL was identified with antibody directed against Na-K-ATPase or BSC1, and type A intercalated cells were identified with antibody to anion exchanger 1 (AE1). Apoptosis was detected with TUNEL method, and cell proliferation with immunostaining for PCNA. Results – Primary and Secondary: EGF treatment resulted in the following: (1) reduced kidney weight; (2) shortened length of renal papilla; (3) delayed transformation of the cuboidal epithelium into the squamous epithelium of the ATL; (4) delayed elimination of type A intercalated cells in the medullary collecting duct; (5) decreased both apoptotic index and PCNA-positive cells in the TAL and the collecting duct of the renal medulla. Conclusion: These findings suggest that exogenous EGF delays the development of loop of Henle in the renal papilla by reducing both apoptosis and cell proliferation.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Apoptosis in metanephric development

          During metanephric development, non-polarized mesenchymal cells are induced to form the epithelial structures of the nephron following interaction with extracellular matrix proteins and factors produced by the inducing tissue, ureteric bud. This induction can occur in a transfilter organ culture system where it can also be produced by heterologous cells such as the embryonic spinal cord. We found that when embryonic mesenchyme was induced in vitro and in vivo, many of the cells surrounding the new epithelium showed morphological evidence of programmed cell death (apoptosis) such as condensed nuclei, fragmented cytoplasm, and cell shrinking. A biochemical correlate of apoptosis is the transcriptional activation of a calcium-sensitive endonuclease. Indeed, DNA isolated from uninduced mesenchyme showed progressive degradation, a process that was prevented by treatment with actinomycin- D or cycloheximide and by buffering intracellular calcium. These results demonstrate that the metanephric mesenchyme is programmed for apoptosis. Incubation of mesenchyme with a heterologous inducer, embryonic spinal cord prevented this DNA degradation. To investigate the mechanism by which inducers prevented apoptosis we tested the effects of protein kinase C modulators on this process. Phorbol esters mimicked the effects of the inducer and staurosporine, an inhibitor of this protein kinase, prevented the effect of the inducer. EGF also prevented DNA degradation but did not lead to differentiation. These results demonstrate that conversion of mesenchyme to epithelial requires at least two steps, rescue of the mesenchyme from apoptosis and induction of differentiation.
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            Renal origin of rat urinary epidermal growth factor

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              Epidermal Growth Factor Ameliorates Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease in Mice

              C57BL/6J mice homozygous for the cpk gene exhibit an autosomal recessive (AR) form of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), similar to human ARPKD, with massive collecting duct cysts. These cysts are lined by epithelial with an immature phenotype. Since renal expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) is also significantly decreased in affected mice, we hypothesized that renal EGF is necessary for normal developmental maturation of the collecting duct. To determine if the lack of EGF may be a decisive factor in the initiation and/or growth of collecting duct cysts, we administered exogenous EGF (1 microgram/g body wt subcutaneously) daily for Postnatal Days 3-9 (a critical period for collecting duct maturation) to C57BL/6J-cpk mice. EGF but not sham or albumin treatment retarded the development of PKD, reduced the degree of renal failure associated with the disease, and prolonged the survival of cystic mice. Sulfated glycoprotein-2 gene expression, a marker of immaturity in collecting duct cells, was reduced in cystic kidney by EGF treatment. This finding indicates that EGF treatment was associated with an increase in the maturation of the collecting duct epithelial cells. These findings support the view that decreased EGF may play a significant role in promoting the enlargement of collecting duct cysts in a hereditary model of ARPKD and that PKD involves defective and/or arrested collecting duct cell maturation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2004
                April 2004
                08 April 2004
                : 24
                : 2
                : 212-220
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine and cAnatomy, eCell Death Disease Research Center, The Catholic University of Korea; bDepartment of Anatomy, Hallym University; dDepartment of Internal Medicine, Ewha Women’s University, Seoul, Korea
                Article
                77275 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:212–220
                10.1159/000077275
                15017118
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 1, References: 21, Pages: 9
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/77275
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Renal papilla, Developing rat kidney, Epidermal growth factor

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