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      No Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism on Disease Progression and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

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          Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) shows a variable clinical course suggesting that genetic modifiers might play a role. There are conflicting results about the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism on the progression of renal failure in ADPKD. Also, the association between ACE gene polymorphism and the occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has not been investigated in patients with ADPKD. Methods: ACE genotype analysis was performed in 409 Caucasian patients (137 male, 272 female) with ADPKD. Echocardiographic examination was done in 164 of these patients. Results: There were no significant differences between different ACE genotypes regarding renal function, renal volume, urinary protein excretion, blood pressure, the rate of hypertension, the age at diagnosis of hypertension, the rate of LVH and the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Conclusion: ACE gene polymorphism does not have a significant effect on the development of ESRD and the prevalence of LVH in patients with ADPKD.

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          Absence of association or genetic linkage between the angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene and left ventricular mass.

          Homozygous carries of the D allele of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene have been reported to be at increased risk for various cardiovascular disorders, including left ventricular hypertrophy. We investigated the potential role of the ACE gene in influencing left ventricular mass. Quantitative echocardiographic data and DNA samples were available for 2439 subjects from the Framingham Heart Study. ACE genotypes were determined by an assay based on the polymerase chain reaction. (The D allele of the ACE gene contains a deletion, whereas the I [insertion] allele does not.) Left ventricular mass and the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy, adjusted for clinical covariates, were analyzed according to genotype. Genetic linkage between the ACE locus and left ventricular mass was evaluated by quantitative analysis of pairs of siblings. The ACE genotype was associated neither with left ventricular mass nor with the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Mean (+/-SE) left ventricular mass (adjusted for sex) among subjects carrying the DD, DI, and II genotypes was 165+/-1.6, 165+/-1.3, and 166+/-2.0 g, respectively (P=0.90). The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among the three genotype groups was 15.6 percent, 13.6 percent, and 15.6 percent, respectively (P=0.36), and the adjusted relative risk of left ventricular hypertrophy associated with the DD genotype was 1.10 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.19). Linkage analysis in 759 pairs of siblings using both the ACE D/I marker and a microsatellite polymorphism at the neighboring locus for the human growth hormone gene failed to support any role of ACE in influencing left ventricular mass. The ACE genotype showed no association with echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass, nor did it confer an increased risk of left ventricular hypertrophy. We found no appreciable role of the ACE gene in influencing left ventricular mass.
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            Polymorphisms in angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene and progression of IgA nephropathy

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              Angiotensin converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphism in essential hypertension and nephroangiosclerosis.

              An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene significantly influences circulating ACE levels and plays a role in the development of target organ damage, that is, left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension (EH), and microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus. We have examined the role of the I/D polymorphism in essential hypertensive patients with renal involvement. The study was divided in two independent protocols. In protocol 1, we retrospectively analyzed the ACE genotypes in 37 essential hypertensive patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of nephroangiosclerosis. In protocol 2, ACE genotypes as well as microalbuminuria and renal hemodynamic parameters were investigated in 75 patients with EH with normal renal function and a strong family history of hypertension. As control group, 75 healthy subjects with BP < 130/85 mm Hg and no family history of cardiovascular diseases were studied. The ACE variants were determined by PCR and the genotypes were classified as DD, DI and II. In protocol 1, patients with nephroangiosclerosis displayed a significant difference in the genotype distribution (57% DD, 27% DI, 16% II) when compared to the control population (25% DD, 64% DI, 11% II; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in genotype distribution between hypertensive patients with normal renal function (protocol 2; 33% DD, 59% DI, 8% II) and the control group. There were no differences in age, blood pressure, microalbuminuria and duration of the disease among the three genotypes in the EH group from protocol 2. Taken together, these findings suggest that the DD genotype of ACE is associated with histopathologic-proven kidney involvement in patients with EH and that this polymorphism could be a potential genetic marker in hypertensives at risk of renal complications.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2003
                21 November 2003
                : 23
                : 6
                : 466-470
                University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colo., USA
                74653 Am J Nephrol 2003;23:466–470
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 41, Pages: 5
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                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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