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      Emerging and neglected zoonoses in transplant population

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          Abstract

          Zoonoses represent a problem of rising importance in the transplant population. A close relationship and changes between human, animal and environmental health (“One Health” concept) significantly influence the transmission and distribution of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to perform a narrative review of the published literature on emerging and neglected zoonoses in the transplant population. Many reports on donor-derived or naturally acquired (re-)emerging arboviral infections such as dengue, chikungunya, West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis and Zika virus infection have demonstrated atypical or more complicated clinical course in immunocompromised hosts. Hepatitis E virus has emerged as a serious problem after solid organ transplantation (SOT), leading to diverse extrahepatic manifestations and chronic hepatitis with unfavorable outcomes. Some neglected pathogens such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus can cause severe infection with multi-organ failure and high mortality. In addition, ehrlichiosis may be more severe with higher case-fatality rates in SOT recipients. Some unusual or severe presentations of borreliosis, anaplasmosis and rickettsioses were also reported among transplant patients. Moreover, toxoplasmosis as infectious complication is a well-recognized zoonosis in this population. Although rabies transmission through SOT transplantation has rarely been reported, it has become a notable problem in some countries. Since the spreading trends of zoonoses are likely to continue, the awareness, recognition and treatment of zoonotic infections among transplant professionals should be imperative.

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          Most cited references 132

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          Toxoplasmosis snapshots: global status of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and implications for pregnancy and congenital toxoplasmosis.

          Toxoplasma gondii's importance for humans refers mainly to primary infection during pregnancy, resulting in abortion/stillbirth or congenital toxoplasmosis. The authors sought to evaluate the current global status of T. gondii seroprevalence and its correlations with risk factors, environmental and socioeconomic parameters. Literature published during the last decade on toxoplasmosis seroprevalence, in women who were pregnant or of childbearing age, was retrieved. A total of 99 studies were eligible; a further 36 studies offered seroprevalence data from regions/countries for which no data on pregnancy/childbearing age were available. Foci of high prevalence exist in Latin America, parts of Eastern/Central Europe, the Middle East, parts of south-east Asia and Africa. Regional seroprevalence variations relate to individual subpopulations' religious and socioeconomic practices. A trend towards lower seroprevalence is observed in many European countries and the United States of America (USA). There is no obvious climate-related gradient, excluding North and Latin America. Immigration has affected local prevalence in certain countries. We further sought to recognise specific risk factors related to seropositivity; however, such risk factors are not reported systematically. Population awareness may affect recognition of said risks. Global toxoplasmosis seroprevalence is continuingly evolving, subject to regional socioeconomic parameters and population habits. Awareness of these seroprevalence trends, particularly in the case of women of childbearing age, may allow proper public health policies to be enforced, targeting in particular seronegative women of childbearing age in high seroprevalence areas.
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            Of ticks, mice and men: understanding the dual-host lifestyle of Lyme disease spirochaetes.

            In little more than 30 years, Lyme disease, which is caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. During this period, there has been an extraordinary accumulation of knowledge on the phylogenetic diversity, molecular biology, genetics and host interactions of B. burgdorferi. In this Review, we integrate this large body of information into a cohesive picture of the molecular and cellular events that transpire as Lyme disease spirochaetes transit between their arthropod and vertebrate hosts during the enzootic cycle.
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              Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations.

              It has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T. gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Janků. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T. gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                World J Transplant
                WJT
                World Journal of Transplantation
                Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
                2220-3230
                31 March 2020
                31 March 2020
                : 10
                : 3
                : 47-63
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Merkur University Hospital, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia. anna.mrzljak@ 123456mef.hr
                School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                Depatment of Medicine, The Royal Hospital Muscat, Muscat 111, Oman
                Department of Virology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                General Hospital Dubrovnik, Dubrovnik 20000, Croatia
                Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases with Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                Department of Virology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                Poultry Center, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                Department of Abdominal and Transplant Surgery, Merkur University Hospital, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Medicine, Merkur University Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases with Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                Department of Virology, Croatian Institute of Public Health; School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
                Author notes

                Author contributions: Mrzljak A and Vilibic-Cavlek T made contributions to conception and design of the study, involved in drafting and revising the manuscript critically; Novak R, Pandak N, Tabain I, Franusic L, Bogdanic M, Barbic L, Savic V, Mikulic D, Pavicic-Saric J and Stevanovic V were involved in collecting data and drafting the manuscript; all authors read and approved the final manuscript.

                Corresponding author: Anna Mrzljak, FEBG, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Merkur University Hospital, Zajceva 19, Zagreb 10000, Croatia. anna.mrzljak@ 123456mef.hr

                Article
                jWJT.v10.i3.pg47
                10.5500/wjt.v10.i3.47
                7109593
                ©The Author(s) 2020. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

                This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.

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