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      Clinical review: Biomarkers of acute kidney injury: where are we now?

      , 1 , 2 , 3

      Critical Care

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          The recognition that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality has resulted in a substantial number of publications over the past 5 years or more. In no small part these have, to a degree, highlighted the inadequacy of conventional markers of renal insufficiency in the acute setting. Much effort has been invested in the identification of early, specific AKI markers in order to aid early diagnosis of AKI and hopefully improve outcome. The search for a 'biomarker' of AKI has seen early promise replaced by a degree of pessimism due to the lack of a clear candidate molecule and variability of results. We outline the major studies described to date as well as discuss potential reasons for the discrepancies observed and suggest that evolution of the field may result in success with ultimately an improvement in patient outcomes.

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          Most cited references 81

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          The outcome of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-positive subclinical acute kidney injury: a multicenter pooled analysis of prospective studies.

          The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, without diagnostic changes in serum creatinine, increased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels identify patients with subclinical acute kidney injury (AKI) and therefore worse prognosis. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin detects subclinical AKI hours to days before increases in serum creatinine indicate manifest loss of renal function. We analyzed pooled data from 2,322 critically ill patients with predominantly cardiorenal syndrome from 10 prospective observational studies of NGAL. We used the terms NGAL(-) or NGAL(+) according to study-specific NGAL cutoff for optimal AKI prediction and the terms sCREA(-) or sCREA(+) according to consensus diagnostic increases in serum creatinine defining AKI. A priori-defined outcomes included need for renal replacement therapy (primary endpoint), hospital mortality, their combination, and duration of stay in intensive care and in-hospital. Of study patients, 1,296 (55.8%) were NGAL(-)/sCREA(-), 445 (19.2%) were NGAL(+)/sCREA(-), 107 (4.6%) were NGAL(-)/sCREA(+), and 474 (20.4%) were NGAL(+)/sCREA(+). According to the 4 study groups, there was a stepwise increase in subsequent renal replacement therapy initiation-NGAL(-)/sCREA(-): 0.0015% versus NGAL(+)/sCREA(-): 2.5% (odds ratio: 16.4, 95% confidence interval: 3.6 to 76.9, p < 0.001), NGAL(-)/sCREA(+): 7.5%, and NGAL(+)/sCREA(+): 8.0%, respectively, hospital mortality (4.8%, 12.4%, 8.4%, 14.7%, respectively) and their combination (4-group comparisons: all p < 0.001). There was a similar and consistent progressive increase in median number of intensive care and in-hospital days with increasing biomarker positivity: NGAL(-)/sCREA(-): 4.2 and 8.8 days; NGAL(+)/sCREA(-): 7.1 and 17.0 days; NGAL(-)/sCREA(+): 6.5 and 17.8 days; NGAL(+)/sCREA(+): 9.0 and 21.9 days; 4-group comparisons: p = 0.003 and p = 0.040, respectively. Urine and plasma NGAL indicated a similar outcome pattern. In the absence of diagnostic increases in serum creatinine, NGAL detects patients with likely subclinical AKI who have an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The concept and definition of AKI might need re-assessment. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Early detection of acute renal failure by serum cystatin C.

            Acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with high mortality. Presently, no specific therapy for ARF exists. Therefore, early detection of ARF is critical to prevent its progression. However, serum creatinine, the standard marker to detect ARF, demonstrates major limitations. We prospectively evaluated whether serum cystatin C detected ARF earlier than serum creatinine. In 85 patients at high risk to develop ARF, serum creatinine and cystatin C were determined daily. ARF was defined according to the Risk of renal dysfunction, Injury to the kidney, Failure of kidney function, Loss of kidney function, and ESRD (RIFLE) classification when creatinine increased by >/=50% (R-criteria), by >/=100% (I-criteria), or by >/=200% (F-criteria). In analogy, ARF was detected when cystatin C increased by >/=50%, by >/=100%, or by >/=200%. Forty-four patients developed ARF and 41 served as controls. In ARF by R-, I-, and F-criteria, the increase of cystatin C significantly preceded that of creatinine. Specifically, serum cystatin C increased already by >/=50% 1.5 +/- 0.6 days earlier compared to creatinine. Serum cystatin C demonstrated a high diagnostic value to detect ARF as indicated by area under the curve of the ROC analysis of 0.82 and 0.97 on the two days before the R-criteria was fulfilled by creatinine. Cystatin C detected ARF according to the R-criteria with a sensitivity of 55% and 82% on these days, respectively. Cystatin C also performed excellently, detecting ARF defined by the I- and F-criteria two days prior to creatinine, and moderately well predicting renal replacement therapy in the further course of ARF. Additionally, low T(3)- or T(3)/T(4) syndrome, glucocorticoid deficiency and excess did not affect cystatin C levels, adding to its usefulness in critically ill patients with ARF. Serum cystatin C is a useful detection marker of ARF, and may detect ARF one to two days earlier than creatinine.
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              Urinary IL-18 is an early predictive biomarker of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

              Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The lack of early biomarkers for AKI has impaired our ability to intervene in a timely manner. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is recently demonstrated as an early biomarker of AKI after CPB, increasing 25-fold within 2 h and declining 6 h after surgery. In the present study, we tested whether interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a predictive biomarker for AKI in the same group of patients following CPB. Exclusion criteria included pre-existing renal insufficiency and nephrotoxin use. Serial urine samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IL-18 in 20 patients who developed AKI (defined as a 50% or greater increase in serum creatinine after CPB) and 35 controls (age, race, and gender-matched patients who did not develop AKI after CPB). Using serum creatinine, AKI was detected only 48-72 h after CPB. In contrast, urine IL-18 increased at 4-6 h after CPB, peaked at over 25-fold at 12 h, and remained markedly elevated up to 48 h after CPB. The performance of IL-18 as demonstrated by area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for diagnosis of AKI at 4, 12, and 24 h after CPB was 61, 75, and 73% respectively. Also, on multivariate analysis, both IL-18 and NGAL were independently associated with number of days in AKI among cases. Our results indicate that IL-18 is an early, predictive biomarker of AKI after CPB, and that NGAL and IL-18 are increased in tandem after CPB. The combination of these two biomarkers may allow for the reliable early diagnosis and prognosis of AKI at all times after CPB, much before the rise in serum creatinine.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Crit Care
                Crit Care
                Critical Care
                BioMed Central
                1364-8535
                1466-609X
                2012
                21 September 2012
                21 September 2013
                : 16
                : 5
                : 233
                Affiliations
                [1 ]King's College London, Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Critical Care and Nephrology, London SE1 7EH, UK
                [2 ]St George's Healthcare Trust, St George's Hospital, Department of Critical Care, London SW17 0QT, UK
                [3 ]Western Sussex Hospitals Trust, Department of Critical Care, Worthing, West Sussex, BN11 2DH, UK
                Article
                cc11380
                10.1186/cc11380
                3682238
                23014769
                Copyright ©2012 BioMed Central Ltd
                Categories
                Review

                Emergency medicine & Trauma

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